Were there a lot of dairies around here then?
ROLLO. Nearly everyone dairied in those times.
What was the maximum amount of cows that you would milk by hand?
ROLLO. Twenty to thirty-five. That's a family. There was Dick Brownlie ('Towamba Station') he milked his seventeen to twenty-five cows, up here, Ramsey ('Hillview') he dairied about his twenty-five cows and run sheep besides. Then there was 'Elmgrove' that was Love's, they milked up to one hundred cows.
So how many people would they have milking?
ROLLO. That was a big family.
So how many cows could one person milk...?
ROLLO. You'd average out eight cows each hour.

What type were they. Jersey?
ROLLO. Yes. Mostly Jersey. Grey Jersey. And Shorthorn cross. And there was Freddie McPaul, where Ronnie McPaul is ('Rosebank') they milked up to ninety to one hundred cows there. Then there was Eltons, they milked seventeen to twenty cows.
*** Excerpt from Rollo South's interview in 'The Forgotten Corner Interviews.'

The Towamba valley, once cleared by the early settlers, had generally rich and fertile soil. River flats and undulating hills attracted dairy farmers who milked and separated the cream by hand to be sent off to the local butter factory. Small dairy herds could yield enough cream to supply cash for living expenses. The separated milk was fed to pigs that were fattened and often walked to the bacon factory at Pambula on the coast.
Many families share-farmed for properties that had large dairy herds. The children would help with the milking before and after school. Most farms supplied their own meat, vegetables, preserves, fresh fruit and bacon. Supplies were brought by coastal steamer from Sydney or Melbourne to the port at Eden and picked up by horse and bullock teams that hauled the ordered goods back to the valley. Many items were ordered from catalogues or via the local village store at Towamba which for many settlers living at Pericoe, Letts Mountain or Wog Wog was still a day's ride away.
Self sufficiency was survival in this remote area.

View of the fertile Towamba Valley from Towamba Road towards Model Farm,
Towamba River and Log Farm, looking east. 1967

Courtesy J. Love



July 26, 1946
'The Land '

* History of the Kameruka Estate dates back to 1851 when the Twofold Bay Pastoral Association was formed to take up six stations including Kameruka and Towamba-extending from the Coast to the Monaro-a total area of 400,000 acres. The Association continued in existence until 1861. A year later, Mr. Frederick Tooth purchased Kameruka, the sale being regarded, as one of the biggest transfers ever undertaken in the State.

LINKS :

Albie and William Love cutting hay at Love's Valley,
Pericoe. c 1937

Photo courtesy M. Price.

30 October 1880
'Australian Town and Country Journal'
BOMBALA
.-17th to 20th, strong winds, cold and bleak for time of year; 21st and 22nd rain, 23rd fine. Pasture good. Water abundant. Condition of stock good. No disease. Stock passings: 93 head of cattle from Towamba, for Gippsland ; 254 head of cattle from Bondi, for Goulburn.

30 September 1882
'Freeman's Journal'
AUSTRALIAN FARMING.

No greater evidence of the increasing prosperity of the colony can be found than the ability manifested of late years by the class known in the old country as yeomanry to acquire small agricultural or dairy farms, to be to them and their children homes which they in truth can make their own. The settlement of such a class on Australian soil cannot be overrated as an element of strength and stability to the colony. For generations past the class referred to has been the real backbone of the British nation, and the accumulation of large estates to the exclusion and diminution of the numbers of such men as we refer to has ever been regarded by thoughtful and patriotic minds as a calamity to any country where such a state of things prevails. In the more favoured land of our adoption or birth, as the case may be, the tendency (in many parts at all events) is towards disintegration, rather than the accumulation of large farming properties. North and South we have of late noticed various estates which have for years past been vested in sole owners, that are now being sold in parcels which come within the reach of men of moderate means; and we now observe that the well-known Towamba Estate, belonging to Sir W. Manning and Mr. C. T. Stiles, in the extreme south of our rich coast district, is in the market for sale in moderate sized farms on very easy terms of payment. This circumstance must necessarily be of great importance to those interested in dairying pur suits, as it is well-known that the area most suitable from soil and climate for that particular industry is confined to a comparatively narrow strip on the southern seaboard. Commencing with the famed Illawarra district, where such small portions of land as occasionally find their way into the market for sale realise 20 to 30 or 40 per acre; further south we come to the celebrated Bodalla Estate, of which the late Mr. T. S. Mort was so justly proud, and which is without exception the most beautiful and productive farm on the continent of Australia. And still further on there is the rich and prosperous Bega district, where during the past few years every available acre has been utilised for cheese and butter making, and corn-growing. The Towamba Estate of about 10,000 acres is now we believe the last on the South Coast where any considerable area of land suit able for dairying is likely to be procurable, and the liberal manner in which the owners are put ting it before the public will no doubt be the means of settling many happy and prosperous families where heretofore has existed simply one large fattening farm.

21 October 1882
'Freeman's Journal'
Towamba Estate,
Bega. - The auctioneers for this estate, Messrs. Rixon and M'Leod, have sent to us for distribution a few placards of this estate which is advertised in our columns for sale in November. We shall be glad to forward one to any person who purposes visiting the sale. A plan may be also seen at this office.

26 October 1882
'The Shoalhaven Telegraph'
Sale of the Towamba Estate

In an article under the heading of 'Australian Farming,' the Freeman's Journal thus refers to the forthcoming sale of the Towamba Estate at Bega, by Messrs. Rixon and Macleod, as set forth in our advertising columns: -
No greater evidence of the increasing prosperity of the colony can be found than the ability manifested of late years by the class known in tho old country as yeomanry to acquire small agricultural or dairy farms, to be to them and their children homes which they in truth can make their own. The settlement of such a class on Australian soil cannot be overrated as an element of strength and stability to the colony. For generations past the class referred to has been the real backbone of the British nation, and the accumulation of large estates to the exclusion and diminution of the numbers of such men as we refer to has ever been regarded by thoughtful and patriotic minds as a calamity to any country where such a thing prevails. In the more favoured land of our adoption or birth, as the case may be, the tendency (in many parts at all events) is towards disintegration, rather that the accumulation of large farming properties. North and south we have of late various estates which have for years past been vested in sole owners, that are now being sold in parcels which come within the reach of men of moderate means; and we now observe that the well-known Towamba Estate, belonging to Sir W. Manning and Mr. C. T. Stiles, in the extreme south of our rich coast district, is in the market for sale in moderate sized farms on very easy terms of payment. This circumstance must necessarily be of great importance to those interested in dairying pursuits, as it is well known that the area most suitable from soil and climate for that particular industry is confined to a comparatively narrow strip on the southern seaboard. Commencing with the famed Illawarra district, where such small portions of land as occasionally find their way into the market for sale realise 20 to 30 or 40 per acre; further south we come to the celebrated Bodalla Estate of which the late Mr. T. S. Mort was so justly proud, and which is without exception the most beautiful and productive farm on the continent of Australia. And still further on is the prosperous Bega district, where during the past few years every available acre has been utilised for cheese and butter making and corn growing. The Towamba Estate of about 10, 000 acres is now we believe the last on the South Coast where any considerable area of land suitable for dairying is likely to be procurable, and the liberal manner in which, the owners are putting it before the public will no doubt be the means of settling many happy and prosperous families were heretofore has existed simply one large fattening farm.

18 November 1882
'The Bega Gazette and Eden District or Southern Coast Advertiser'
Towamba
.-A number of Bega gentlemen off to Towamba yesterday to inspect the lands about to be sold. As an item, Mr. Tom Rixon informs us that on some of the sections there is wattle bark sufficient to pay the cost of clearing the ground. We believe every acre will be sold at a handsome price.

25 November 1885

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
The Bombala Herald of November 20 laments that the protracted drought is causing much anxiety in this, as well as in the Bega-Eden district. Under the mountain there is scarcely a blade of grass to be seen. The losses among the dairy herds will be very heavy; it will take some time even with a break up of the drought to replace the grand lot of cows that the different dairies possessed. A large number of dairymen have been at considerable outlay for forage, to save their cattle, and in so doing have in many cases expended their means. Unless blessed with immediate change, their prospects are such that it means certain ruin. A destructive fire has occurred at Towamba, not only destroying what little grass was left, but there has been great destruction to property.

January 12, 1894
'Pambula Voice'
TOWAMBA
The late fall of rain was not so heavy here as it was in other parts of the district although several farmers have had a quantity of hay damaged.

March 19, 1894
'The Maitland Daily Mercury'
LOCAL NEWS.

A Hint to Farmers.- A Warrnambool potato grower has made an experiment with a small, crop of potatoes, similar to that tried in France, with splendid results. Some 12 months ago he adopted the allowing system:- Used sound potatoes of medium size, and planted them whole, first ploughing the ground very deeply. Before planting he steeped the tubers for 21 hours in a bath composed of sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of potash, of each 6lb to 25 gal. of water; then he allowed them to stand 21 hours before planting. On digging the potatoes last week the result of the experiment was at once apparent. There were from 30 to 40 large tubers on each stalk, and a little patch 16 feet by 9 yielded 180lb net, being equal to 24 tons 6cwt 18lbs per acre. An adjacent plot of ground was planted in the ordinary way, and only gave a yield of 7 tons to the acre.

November 3, 1894
'Australian Town and Country Journal'

* Registered Brand-Towamba : The registered cattle brand of Mr. A. C. Stubbs, Towamba, is AC over S.

13 April 1897
'Evening News'

PAMBULA,
Tuesday.- John Whalen, whilst working in the pig yards of Mr. Young at Towamba, was suddenly thrown down and attacked by an old boar which inflicted several gashes and serious injuries. Fortunately Whalen managed to crawl through a fence, or he would have been killed. He is now receiving medical and surgical attendance.
On Saturday at midnight Mrs. Bollman, wife of a settler at Towamba, was driven into town, having been bitten by a black snake on the leg in the afternoon. Mr. Bollman had scarified and bound round the wound, and then drove his wife over thirty miles. On arrival here she was delirious, but was quickly attended by Dr. Stoney. She is now progressing.

BULLOCKS WITH SLED.
(Possibly Pat Farrell at 'Old Basin' (creek). Rocky Hall.)
Photo Jean McPaul Collection, Eden Killer Whale Museum. No date.


January 12, 1899
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
A HEAVY MAIZE CROP.

The dry weather continues, but the maize and potato crops look well notwithstanding. Judging from present appearance the maize crops on the Kiah River promise an average of between 50 and 60 bushels to the acre, and some exceptionally big fields are expected.

November 17, 1899
Burragate

Employees on "Lyndhurst" estate - presentation to Mr. J.H. Martin, who is about to retire from the management of "Lyndhurst" and take up his permanent abode in Pambula..... He was in charge of "Lyndhurst" for 10 years.

February 16, 1900
Wyndham
One of our local residents, Mr. W. Robertson, of Honeysuckle, has been appointed manager of the "Lyndhurst" Estate at Burragate.

March 16, 1900
'Pambula Voice'

EDEN ITEMS
Some very fine cobs of early maize grown by Mr. Robert Hazelgrove of Lower Towamba are on view at the office of Messers Phillipps Bros. The variety in question is known as the 'Early Leman' and appears to mature much earlier than other kinds grown locally.

September 14, 1901
'South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus'

* On account of the late disastrous seasons for dairying, some of our dairy farmers are going in for sheep. Mr. Jas. A. Love has bought about 400 sheep, and is giving up dairying.
* Mr. John M'Donald has stocked his farm with sheep; he says he will have about 600 with this season's lambs, and is doing away with all milking stock. Mr. Benjamin Beasley, at Towamba, is giving his attention to sheep, and has not been doing any dairying for a considerable time past. Messrs. Alexander Bros, also have as nice a little flock of sheep as could be seen anywhere: proving without a shadow of doubt that sheep will do well under the mountain if the right class are procured.

June 16, 1902
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
SOUTH COAST.

The Pastures and Stock Protection Board for this district (Eden-Bega) has decided to offer a bonus of 2d each for hare scalps. The bonus for wallaby and dingo scalps has been discontinued.
Rabbits appear to be gradually gaining ground in this locality, the discovery of several burrows having been reported of late.
A family near Towamba has trapped over 1100 wallabies during the past few mouths, killing them for their skins. An opossum hunter in the same vicinity (Pericoe) also succeeded in trapping 200 opossums in one week, 60 being captured in one night. The skins are of the highest market value just now, as the opossums have their winter coats of fur.
Paddocks have been taken near Wog Wog, in the southern part of this district, for depasturing about 6000 sheep and some 600 head of starving cattle from the direction of Goulburn.
Grass is not at all scarce hereabouts, the district being particularly favoured in this respect.
The annual harvest festival services conducted in Christ Church, Pambula, during the week wore most successful.
Most of the corn crops have been gathered in, and farmers are obtaining as much as from 4s 6d to 5s per bushel for the grain, the highest return for many years.

January 8, 1904
* Messrs. D. Grant & Co. of Wyndham having sold on account of Mr. Jas. Doherty 100 acres of land at Burragate, Mrs. Rebecca Robertson being the purchaser.

July 9, 1904
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
THE CROPS.

PAMBULA.
* During the past season some 415 acres of land at Kiah River were placed under maize, and the satisfactory average yield of 60 bushels to the acre has been harvested. Fifteen acres of potatoes were also grown, yielding an average return of 6 tons to the acre.

'The Bega Budget'
4 October 1905

* T. Hite (Towamba) notifies. Thursday, 5th October. - At McKee's Hotel Yards, Towamba, at 11 o'clock, 200 head cattle and 6 draught horses. The cattle are store bullocks, springers, mixed young cattle and team of working bullocks. The same auctioneer will also offer J. A. Love's farm of 770 acres.

January 26, 1906
Wyndham

* Your scribe paid a visit to Mr. H.A. Kraanstuyver's orchard on the farm, Long Flat, last week and again this week. His crop of cherries is the largest I have ever seen.... The orchard is situated on the river bank on a rich alluvial flat, and is well sheltered... The corn crops on the farm are also looking remarkably well... The crops of some of the adjoining neighbours, particularly Messrs. Rixon and Edwards, also look splendid. This locality has benefited by several nice thunderstorms which other parts of the district unfortunately missed.

July 5, 1907
Rocky Hall

* Mr. W. Booth, who has been managing Mr. Edwards' "Carlyle" farm for some considerable time, has removed to Burragate. Henceforth, Mr. Edwards will reside on "Carlyle",. he having relinquished postal business at Wyndham.

November 20, 1907
'The Bega Budget'
* There are some progressive spirits down Burragate way. A meeting was held recently at which Towamba and Burragate residents were present when the question of irrigating the lands of these localities was discussed. It is proposed to dam the Towamba River at Burragate.

February 15, 1908
'The Bega Budget'

TOWAMBA
.
Just now Towamba presents a beautiful appearance, and is a regular paradise. Any one who saw the place a few weeks ago could hardly credit the great change that has taken place since the rain. The crops and pasturage are growing luxuriantly. The river, too, adds greatly to the beauty of the place. During my stay in this locality, I visited Mr. Alex. Binnie's Log Farm, and saw one of the choicest dairy (Jersey) herds it has been my lot to see. The farm is prettily situated, the homestead and yards being built on a slope running back from the Towamba river. Mr. Binnie goes in extensively for hand feeding and has some large stacks of ensilage ready for winter use. The farm is highly improved and can justly be called a model farm. One great convenience is the cyclone gates which can be easily opened and closed without dismounting or getting out of a vehicle. Rabbits are fairly plentiful, but with the constant use of a poison cart and one of Fortescue and Sons famous fumigators Mr. Binnie manages to keep the pest within bounds. I also visited Mr. J. T. Mitchell's farm on Lower Towamba, and he was kindly invited to stay the night. I was glad of the hospitality, for the night was near at hand and the roads rough. When one leaves the Eden road and starts down the river, he has a bad time and needs a staunch horse to take him on his journey. A new road has just been completed and when opened will prove a great boon to the settlers. Mr. Mitchell has a nice farm and goes in for dairying, maize growing, and raising pigs. He, too, has a fine dairy herd, his return for the past year averaging 18 per month from 19 cows. Mr. Mitchell is also a believer in hand feeding, and at pre sent has 15 acres under planter's friend, and 60 acres of maize and peas. Mr. Mitchell is one of the pioneers of this district, and is full of anecdotes of the early days. I was very sorry to bid farewell to Mr. Mitchell and family who entertained me so hospitably.

August 11, 1909
'The Bega Budget '
An Irrigation Proposal
.
To the residents of Towamba belong the distinction of making an attempt to introduce an irrigation scheme on a fairly large scale on the South Coast. It was represented to the Works Dept. that an area could be readily irrigated by damning the Towamba River. Through the representations of a committee of residents, of whom Mr. Alfred Porter was secretary, an officer was sent down to inspect the locality. Following is a copy of his report furnished through Mr. W. H. Wood, Chief Secretary; I beg to report having made an inspection of the area proposed to be irrigated from the Towamba River. Owing to the recent dry seasons, Mr. Porter and other landowners fronting the Jingo Creek and Towamba River were of opinion that the waters of the Towamba might be conserved by the construction of a dam a short distance above Burragate, and used for irrigating the country between Burragate and Towamba. The catchment at the dam site is 176 square miles. It is of granite formation, rising to a considerable elevation, is subject to a fairly high rainfall towards the mountain range, and, owing to its impervious character, a big percentage of the rain falling on its gathering grounds would be discharged into the stream. The suggested site for the dam is not a good one. On the eastern side of the river, and across the bed, the granite outcrops, but towards the western end there is a long stretch of shingle, sand and clay, with no rock showing, and I am of opinion that rock would not be met with for a considerable depth, Even if the scheme for utilising the water for irrigation were practicable, the site suggested would be altogether too costly for the construction of a dam. In company with Mr. Porter I examined the river for some distance, and find that a much better site exists about a mile up-stream from the site suggested by the residents. The area proposed to be irrigated is generally poor granite country, rising to several hundred feet, much broken by water-courses, with occasional small pockets of rich alluvial land immediately adjacent to the Towamba River and Jingo Creek. Much of the country is fully 200 feet higher than the suggested dam site, so that from the question of levels alone the scheme is not feasible. Again, the flats above the dam site between Burragate and Rocky Hall would be submerged even if a dam of 108 feet were constructed. These flats are much more extensive and valuable than the country proposed to be irrigated between Burragate and Towamba, and on this ground alone, if other conditions were favorable to the carrying out of the scheme, it must be dismissed.

January 11, 1911
'Southern Star'

* Mr. J. T. Mitchell, of Towamba, pig buyer for M'Lean and Co., shipped about 200 fine animals at Tathra on Saturday. One of the animals went over the wharf during shipping operations, and put up a great swim, finally effecting a landing on the rocks. It was then secured by a rope, hauled through the water to a boat manned by the redoubtable W. Hanlon, and finally shipped.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
22 June 1911
SOUTH COAST AND MONARO.
FAVOURABLE WINTER PROSPECTS.

On Monaro, landholders consider the present season the best experienced for some years as regards natural fodder. Dairying is not gone in for to any great extent. If the farmers went in for rugging and housing their cattle in a severe climate, such as Bombala has in the winter, better results would be assured. There are a number of large station properties in this part, the principal being Gunningrah, Buckalong, Bibbenluke, Maharatta, Aston, Koorang and (unreadable). Maharatta and Bibbenluke (unreadable) and 26,000 acres respectively, have been surveyed, and will be available for closer settlement within a few months, but the residents state this will be of little use without a railway. The reason no doubt why dairying is not extensively carried on at Bombala is on account of the expense of bringing the product to the market, as the nearest port is about 50 miles distant, over mountainous roads. The advent of a railway to Bombala would tend in a great measure to encourage this industry, for which the district has every natural advantage. At the present time the locality is mainly dependent on sheep breeding and the wool Industry, it being estimated that no less than 20,000 bales went out last season, practically the whole of which was shipped to Sydney market for disposal. The sheep are principally merinos, which thrive to excellent advantage in this district, both as regards wool and mutton. As a result of the closer settlement scheme of the Government, some 15,000 sheep and 1300 pure shorthorn cattle from Maharatta Station were recently disposed of. The herd was established over 40 years ago, the foundation being high-priced imported stock, which had been kept pure by the frequent Introduction of fresh blood from the best studs. The sheep disposed of were all pure Wanganella and Burrawang blood, and noted wool-cutters.
The vast expanse of cleared, undulating country extending for miles as far as the eye can reach, the major portion of which is in the hands of a few stations, approximately totalling 100,000 acres, is the most startling feature of this district. With its natural advantages and the establishment of closer settlement on this vast territory the district should become one of the most flourishing in the State. A feature that must eventually play an important part in the development of this part of the State is the construction of the Cooma to Nimitybelle railway, which is nearing completion. The earth works are well forward, and rails have been placed in position for a distance of about 15 miles out of Cooma in a total length of 23 miles. The municipal council at Bombala has been moving lately in the matter by urging the Government to commence the railway extension on the second section from Nimitybelle to Bombala, a distance of 40 miles. The reply received from the Works Department was to the effect that the Government had not yet decided when the extension would be commenced. The reply has occasioned much disappointment, as it is claimed that the establishment of this railway would be the means of opening up a lot of fine property now in the hands of a few, and give an impetus to wheat-growing and farming of all descriptions. There are hundreds of thousands of acres to be developed, and it is asserted that the district has thus been kept back for many years for want of a railway. Although the land at present available for wheat growing is very limited, the progressiveness of the district is demonstrated by the fact that the town possesses an up-to date flourmill, the full output from which is disposed of locally.
Cathcart, Rocky Hall, Wyndham, and Bemboka are small centres of a scattered district, and rather sparsely settled. Unfortunately this part of the country for a few years past has experienced adverse seasons, with the result that a good number of the settlers have gone elsewhere. It is confidently expected, however, that with favourable conditions settlement will increase. The district being practically wholly dairying, everything depends upon the rainfall. Round about Bemboka, Bombala, Cathcart, Bega, Candelo, Pambula, and other centres the rabbit has become such a nuisance that it was recently decided to establish a rabbit canning factory at Wyndham, near the town, the opening of which will take place early in July. The financial success of the venture is already assured on account of a great number of the farmers having shares in the company.
This will turn what has hitherto been considered a pest into a revenue-producing commodity, as an unlimited market is already assured for the product. The building is finished, and is composed of iron, with concrete floors throughout. It is expected that at the outset quite 40 men will be employed in and about the factory, and it is hoped within six months that employment will be found for 100. It is expected that 2000 pairs of rabbits will be daily dealt with for five days in each week, and it is stated that one firm in England alone is prepared to handle all the tinned rabbits that can be turned out during the next five years. The British Admiralty is also expected to be a large purchaser. Mutton and veal will be also dealt with. When the works are in full swing employment will be found for six expert tinsmiths, three skinners, and 60 or 70 trappers. If there should be a falling off in the supply of rabbits during the summer months store cattle, sheep, and poultry will be dealt with.
Round Burragate the country is excellently adapted for trapping operations, and this part is within easy distance of the factory. All these combined factors should tell in favour of the trapper making good wages. Already many applications have been made to local landholders, and no trouble is experienced in getting the necessary permission to trap with- out a bonus. One fur dealer at Wyndham recently packed and despatched from that centre six bales, each containing about 400 lb of rabbit skins, the number in the parcel totalling about 30,000. This is an enormous quantity of skins, the bulk being obtained by trappers and poisoners operating on the holdings of farmers living in the vicinity of Pericoe, Towamba, and Burragate.
At Nimitybelle some splendid yields were recently obtained from experimental potato plots. Eight varieties were planted, six being manured with 4 cwt of manure per acre. The whole yield averaged well over eight tons per acre, and in three instances the splendid yield of nine and a quarter tons was obtained. The area sown with frost-proof potatoes without manure yielded over ten tons to the acre. Some farmers throughout the district had an average of about-seven tons per acre.
Members of the Eden-Bombala Railway League in discussing the Decentralisation Commission report referred to the commissioners having apparently dealt with the subject of decentralising the existing volume of traffic only, and had not taken into due consideration the developmental effect of the proposed railway to connect the port of Eden with Southern Monaro. It was pointed out that Eden already possesses in an ample degree the facilities requisite for shipping produce. The league has since resolved to co-operate with kindred bodies continuing the agitation for the construction of a railway linking up this port with the main line system at Bombala.

September 27, 1911
'The Bega Budget'

* A motor car will leave Brown, Sharpe, and Blacker's office on Thursday morning for Towamba, where this firm has 300 head of cattle for sale.

September 29, 1911
'South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus'

* Mr. J. Mitchell shipped at Eden last week a few short of two hundred prime fat pigs. The consignment was made up of purchases from Messrs. T. McMahon, B. Bruce, F. Newlyn, R. Goward (Kiah), Dickie Bros., W. Beasley (Towamba), and W. Stevens (Wangrabelle, Victoria). Mr. Mitchell states that he intends shipping another consignment of 200 pigs next week.

December 18, 1912
'The Bega Budget '

* A small herd of 13 cows, in the Towamba district, last month returned the owner, 26 16s 8d. The milk was separated and butter made up on the premises.

May 17, 1913
'The Southern Record and Advertiser'

* As far as we can learn, no nominations have yet been submitted from Candelo district for the Pastures Protection Board elections, and Mr. Geo. Keys, of Towamba, is the only retiring Director renominated. Other nominations to hand are: R. V. Ritchie, E. H. Otton, J. A. Baldwin, E. J. Tarlinton.

October 4, 1913
TOWAMBA
Newspaper Unknown
Nearly 6 inches of rain within 21 days! The country is verdant, stock are looking well, and the cream cans show a marked increase. Most of the farmers have their ground ploughed and are ready for planting. Of course they are three weeks early, but I hear several of our more progressive farmers talking of cross ploughing.

August 25, 1915
'The Bega Budget'
Land for Settlement.

The landless dairyfarmer is at last going to have a chance to get a home on the South Coast of New South Wales, on one of its most favored properties, Nangutta, which is now available for application by those in need of a good dairying home. The vendor has made extensive improvements to the property, and practically exterminated the rabbit. Thirty miles of netting have been erected, and useless timber destroyed. The estate has been heavily stocked by starving sheep during the past eight months, which should improve the country for dairying purposes. The land is being sold under closer settlement conditions, and the settler has only to find 5 per cent, of the purchase money as a deposit, and then has nothing more to pay for two years, when an annual payment of 5 per cent, is payable, which covers interest and part payment off balance of purchase money. The areas are exceptionally liberal, and range from 455 acres to about 700 acres, at prices from 3 10s to 4. It is magnificently watered by never-failing running streams, and has many miles of rich lucerne and corn flats. Having been occupied by the one family for over sixty years, the improvements effected are permanent, and the country which was once heavily timbered is now very open and park-like. It is noted for its heavy carrying capacity, and for the large number of prime, fat cattle that have been reared upon it. Numerous enquiries are to hand by the vendors from Gippsland, Riverina, and other districts, and it will be necessary for applicants to quickly apply if they want a block. The vendor is erecting a cheese factory on the property, and will also securely fence each farm. The area of Nangutta is 11,200 acres, and it is divided into 19 farms. A school will be erected on the property, and a telephone connected. The property com prises the pick of the country for miles around, and has long been the envy of the landless dairy farmer. Eden is 40 miles from the boundary, Bombala about 30 miles, and Towamba 20 miles. It is right on the Victoria border, and has a rainfall of over 30 inches. Our advice is: Go and see it for yourselves, and you will secure a farm.

February 22, 1919
'The Southern Record and Advertiser'

* Mr. David Binnie, Towamba, lost 20 cows the other day, through them eating poisoned rabbits.

July 30, 1920
'The Bombala Times'

* Towamba Station is being sub-divided into farms for returned soldiers, the estate having been purchased by the Department for that purpose.

Jim Beasley and son Laurie (in buggy), Alf (son) in front.
'Log Farm' Towamba. c. 1927

Photo courtesy Alf Beasley

EXISTING INDUSTRIES 1929 ( in Bega Valley Shire area)
Maize growing Fishing
Timber Oyster culture
Sheep farming Fruit growing
Dairying Whaling
Pig raising Mining
Wattle growing

April 30, 1929
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
ROADS NEEDED.
FARMERS' DIFFICULTIES.
EDEN.

The Main Roads Board divisional engineer (Mr. Donaldson), recently inspected a route for the proposed developmental road from Lower Towamba via Kiah River to the Prince's Highway at Kiah, a distance of 12 miles.
The area capable of development by a road comprises some of the richest alluvial flats in the far South Coast. It is not provided with a road, and much of it is now accessible only by horseback. Crops of 100 bushels of maize to the acre cannot be marketed, but have to be fed off to pigs, which, when fat, are driven through the bush tracks to the roads, for transport to market. Mr. Donaldson said that he had never seen settlers living in such isolation.

TOWAMBA
'Magnet' June 1929.
* Country looking well around Towamba and Pericoe. Sheep weighing 100 lbs. dressed, and two others at 80 lbs.

Prize winning maize crop. Fred Booth and Roy
Mitchell at Lower Towamba. 1938.

Photo courtesy Mary Mitchell.

July 13, 1929
'Magnet'
* Typical winter weather during the past month, severe frosts and a good many cold days. Farmers have almost completed their corn pulling and can by no means boast of heavy yields as in former years. Potatoes are nearly unprocurable here, the crops being a failure on account of too much rain after such a long spell of dry weather.

July 20, 1929
'Magnet'
* Mr. Roger Boland of Rocky Hall now has 900 sheep on 'The Ridges', at Towamba.

UNKNOWN FAMILY. PERICOE.
(Possibly Lizzie Love and Bill Love's team)
Photo Jean McPaul Collection, Eden Killer Whale Museum. No date.

September 14, 1929
'Magnet'
* Ploughing is in full swing here. Influenza has been rather prevalent but no serious cases so far.
* We have had further good falls of rain with warm days. We should have plenty of grass after this.
* Mr. & Mrs. A. Tasker Snr., have taken over Mrs. L. M. Love's property at Fulligan's Flat, Pericoe and are moving from here during the week.

Carting hay at Pericoe. c.1900
Man in white suit is Percy Alexander, on his left (in middle)
is his brother Robert (known as Beau) Alexander
and the others are believed to be other brothers,
Syd, Alf and Horace (known as Eden).
(Names courtesy of Kathy Jones)

February 15, 1930
PERICOE

'Magnet'
* A new cemented sheep dip has been put down at 'Pericoe Station'. It measures 45 feet long, 2 foot 6 inches across with a depth of five feet. It is expected that the quality of the wool will be improved for the next shearing as well as benefiting the health of the sheep.

April 12, 1930
'Magnet'
TOWAMBA
* The weather continues very dry. The prospects for a good winter are by no means favourable. The annual autumn sowing of oats for green feed is held up for lack of rain.

January 31, 1931
'Magnet'
* Owing to the rains the countryside now looks well and on most places there is a good growth of pasture. We have received more than our share of chilly blasts though, for this time of the year.
* Mr. Alf Alexander attended the cattle sale at Cathcart on Easter Saturday amid reports that the majority of the lots admitted to auction were of poor quality and bidding was dull.

MAN AND CHILDREN.
(Possibly Jim Rixon, Annie Farrell's Husband.
Rocky Hall)
Photo Jean McPaul Collection, Eden Killer Whale Museum. No names. No date

October 3, 1931
'Magnet'
* Eagle hawks have been causing the sheep men much concern as these feathered gentry are very partial to young lambs. At 'Nungatta' a sheep was poisoned with strychnine and this juicy bait quickly accounted for eleven large eagles.

November 7, 1931
'Magnet'
* Mr. Roy Shelley has finished shearing on his Towamba Station. The wool was exceptionally clean and of excellent quality.

November 14, 1931
'Magnet'
TIMBILLICA
A mob of cattle totalling 247 left Timbillica on Monday the 9th, for the sale in Bairnsdale on the 20th instant. Many came from Towamba and a hundred or so from Kiah, Nadgie and Narrabarba. They were to be added to at Wingan by a contingent under the care of Mr. T. Hogg. Messers Tom Doyle, Dave Allan, Pat McCloy, Tom Hogg and Fred Clark are the main Drovers. The last named is driving the wagonette and has charge of all camping arrangements. Other drovers who left Timbillica in connection with this southward trek were J. Allan, C. Allan, J. & A. McMahon, C. Harmer, J. Palmer, G. Ryan, A. Hall and B. Bruce. These constitute an escort as far as the Drummer Mountain. All stock owners and others interested are hoping that the stock will meet a good sale and that the prices realised will top the market.

December 26, 1931
'Magnet'
TOWAMBA
* Victorian cattle buyers were here last week.
* Shearing is in full swing at 'Nungatta' despite the unreasonable weather we are experiencing.
100 year old shearing shed. 'Sheepskin' Burragate.
Photo K.Clery

March 19, 1932
'Magnet'

* Prize winning wool at Eden Show was all from Pericoe. Merino and comeback. (Miss Joy Alexander's exhibit). According to a well-known wool buyer, the best wool produced in the Far South Coast, in regard to Merino and comeback is grown on a scope of country embracing Pericoe, Nungatta, Wog Wog and portions of Towamba, Burragate and Rocky Hall.

June 2, 1932
'Delegate Argus '

* The Eden district field maize growing competition conducted under the auspices of the Eden Exhibition Society, was judged by Mr. J. L. Green, agricultural instructor, who has awarded first honours to Mr. A. Mitchell, of Lower Towamba.- -'Magnet.'
Shearing shed, 'Elmgrove', Pericoe.
Photo K.Clery

October 22, 1932
'Magnet'
ADVERTISEMENT

FOR SALE
The property known as 'Daisy Hill' Farm, Towamba containing 960 acres of land, half of which is netted. Well watered, good cattle country. Access by good roads to Bombala, Bega and Eden. G. R. Phillipps, Estate Agent, Eden.

Corn shed architecture. 'Daisy Hill' Pericoe.
Photo K. Clery

* Noxious plants declared by Bega Council are: Horehound, Khaki Weed, Bathurst Burr, Cats' Head, Scotch Thistle, Blackberry, Sweetbriar, Purple Top, St.John's Wort, Opium Poppy, Cocoa Leaf and African Boxthorn.

October 29, 1932
'Magnet'

* Mr. Bill Greer has returned from his shearing expedition to South Australia.

July 15, 1933
'Magnet'
PERICOE
July 15, 1933
* Mr. A. J. Clements is operating as district buyer of pigs for Messers J. Birch & Co., of Orbost.

24 August 1933
'The Farmer and Settler'
FROM PIGS TO DAIRYING

Towamba Farmer Takes Bold Step and Starts on Sound Lines SETS A LEAD IN PASTURE IMPROVEMENT
Until the recent crash in the pig market, farmers on the Towamba River, south of Bega, earned a reasonably good living from pig raising. When low prices made it impossible for them to carry on, they switched to dairying, and to-day one of their number, Mr. R. J. Goward, of Kiah, has some of the best, pastures on the South Coast. Other farmers are also going in for pasture improvement on approved lines. Mr. GOWARD is a fine type of Australian, and some years ago was the hero of a boating catastrophe at Mallacoota. For his gallant bravery he was awarded the Royal Humane Society's medal for life-saving. Now he is engaged in an equally gallant fight against adversity, but he is coming out on top, and if his luck still holds he will have in a year or two, one of the most up-to-date little farms on the Far South Coast. Essentially a good farmer- he represented the district in the R.A.S. maize championship in 1931- Mr. Goward received a big set back two years ago, when the bottom fell out of the pig market. At that time he was running 200 to 300 pigs. Quick to grasp the situation, this farmer decided that his only hope, was to launch out into dairying, and it was fortunate that he sought the advice of the local agricultural instructor, Mr. J. L. Green. Plans for subdividing the property, and sowing the suitable portions down to the best grasses available, were quickly formulated, and Mr. Goward has started out full of enthusiasm, and with the knowledge that he can build on solid foundations. Mr. Goward's property is twenty-two miles from the Victorian border and twenty-five miles from the Pambula but ter factory, whence goes the cream. Of the 200-acres in the holding, all but 50 acres is steep forest country not yet cleared. Fortunately, the 50-acres consists of rich alluvial flats, and on this area there is running at the present time twenty cows, eight heifers, and a bull. The cattle are Jerseys, and the bull is a purebred animal bred by Mr. J. A. Martin, of Pambula. Under the guidance of Mr. Green, the owner has subdivided the flats into two acre paddocks, and a mile of netting keeps out the rabbits which abound in the neighborhood. Two paddocks are under lucerne, and although usually regarded as a summer crop, it grows prolifically on the Towamba country at this time of the year. It would indeed be hard to find a better stand of lucerne than the one Mr. Goward has. With the exception of a small patch of oats and maize, the rest of the flats have been sown down to perennial rye grass and clover. No super has been used yet, and the natural richness of the soil has produced some of the finest pastures of introduced grasses on the coast. As time goes on, and the plans for the more convenient laying out of the paddocks are completed, Mr. Goward will have one of the finest intensive dairying properties in the State. Although he has only been dairying since September, 1931, Mr. Goward has already learnt the value of certified seed when it comes to planting rye grass. Two paddocks, one with certified seed and the other with non-certified seed, were put down in March, 1932, 25-Ib of rye grass and 1-lb, of white clover an acre being grown in each paddock. The non-certified paddock made wonderful growth last winter, producing grass 7-in, to 8-in, tall. There is a different story to tell to-day. After the first flush, the rye grass began to disappear, until now only the clover, with an odd plant of rye grass, remains. The paddock of certified seed, however, has made steady growth, and in this the second season contains a nicely balanced sward of rye grass and white clover. This is typical of the experience wherever the ordinary commercial strains of rye grass are sown- in other words, they are not true perennials like the certified seed.
Mr. Goward has also tried his hand at bean-growing with a reasonable measure of success. Last year, he planted 10 acres to this crop, but the January floods washed half it them out; nevertheless, he garnered 38-bush, an acre from what remained. This year he hopes to have 20-acres under Canadian Wonders, and if the season is kind he will probably get a yield of 40-bush, an acre. Seed of this variety has brought up to 30/- a bushel, so it is not surprising that Mr. Goward regards the future with a certain amount of optimism.
Here is one farmer who deserves all the success that can come his way. He was born on the Towamba River, and ill-fortune seems to have dogged his footsteps. In 1918 he bought his present property, but the following year the floods came down and washed everything except the house off it. He made a fresh start then, and two years ago launched out once more. This time it is hoped he has unimpeded progress, for it is certain that the 16-acres he has under rye grass and clovers will be giving milk-producing feed for the cattle when farmers who are content to rely on paspalum are at their wits' end to know how to feed their stock.

Corn shed, Towamba.
Photo K.Clery

FODDER CONSERVATION
Local judging results
Following are placings in the judging by Mr. J. L. Green, agricultural instructor of entries in connection with the fodder conservation competition under the auspices of the Eden Exhibition Society.
FIRST. W. A. Green Towamba
SECOND W. R. Roberts Towamba
THIRD R. J. Goward Kiah
FOURTH J. McMahon Snr., Kiah
FIFTH J. C. Roberts Towamba

Corn shed, Lower Towamba
Photo Kate Clery
Detail of corn shed structure.

June 23, 1934
'Magnet'
FODDER CONSERVATION
Eden and Pambula district competitions
Eden competition winner is Mr. Wal Green.
The winner, Mr. W.A. Green of Towamba submitted an entry that the whole district should be proud of and one that should go a long way in the south coast championship. The total area of this farm is only 81 acres of which 12 are alluvial flat and 69 comparatively poor hill country. On this area, 29 head of cattle and 4 horses are run with an average of 18 cows going through the bales throughout the year. There are only seven acres of cultivation, one acre being sown to lucerne but from this during the last two seasons 30 ton of silage, 13 ton of lucerne hay and 3 ton of maize grain have been conserved. The silage pit has been filled and emptied last year and again has recently been filled with sorghum. When feeding from the pit last year the loss was practically nil. In addition to these fodders he conserved 2 tons of excellent quality rye grass, white clover hay was made from sown improved pastures. Also 8 ton of sorghum has been cut and stooked for immediate feeding. The silage, lucerne and grain are in excellent proportions for rations for dairy cows and are all conserved adjacent to recently constructed feed stalls. Under the method of judging. Mr. Green has more than double the quantity required conserved and scored 6 points for surplus.

Mr. Walter Roberts' entry
Mr. W. R. Roberts who gained second place was noteworthy for the large quantity of lucerne hay stored. This farmer has truly shown the way in growing this valuable fodder in the Towamba district and not only is it stored but used extensively for feeding. Practically the whole of the 52 tons has been made from the 16 acres under lucerne during the past summer. Perhaps it is more in regard to quality than quantity that Mr. Roberts should be commended. No better lucerne hay was to be seen during the judging than was conserved on this farm and when it is realised that the season was against the making of good hay the performance is more noteworthy. This competitor lost points for access to his fodder as the bulk of the hay was stored on the opposite side of the river from his dairy and feed stalls. Also as the hay was stored in an old butter factory building. It was difficult to store and difficult of actual access.

Old corn shed. 'Parkside', Towamba.
Photo K.Clery

September 29, 1934
'Magnet'
* Visitors who realise the farming possibilities of Towamba and surrounding districts and evince a desire for local progress, suggest the formation here of a branch of the Agricultural Bureau and a branch of the Junior Farmers Club. Unquestionably, live wire branches of these organisations would do much to make life for our farmers mutually more helpful and strengthen the faith of our young folk in themselves and their homeland.
* A recent addition to our farming community is Mr. James Curtis who is dairying on shares for Mrs. L. M. Love on 'Elmgrove' Towamba.
* So far the conditions for farming operations have not been normally favourable, the season being rather late. With dryer weather the ploughing is now in progress with continued warm weather a good spring in pastures should result.

CARTING WATER.
(George 'Brickie' Farrell, 'Basin Creek', RockyHall)
Photo Jean McPaul Collection, Eden Killer Whale Museum. No date

November 17, 1934
'Magnet'
PERICOE

* The season is well advanced here and prospects look good. Old hands say that the growth of clover this year is phenomenal.
* Preparations are being made on Pericoe Station for a busy sheep shearing period.
* Mr.& Mrs. E. Love and family, formerly of McPaul's dairy, Pericoe, are now residing in Eden.

November 24, 1934
'Magnet'

TOWAMBA
The following complimentary reference to a Towamba entry in the Far South Coast Pasture Improvement Trials appeared in the official report on areas sown by dairy farmers in the autumn of last year: Mr. A. J. Clements' 'Model Farm' Towamba. The following mixture was sown per acre on a five acre plot of alluvial land: 16 lbs certified perennial rye grass, 4 lbs akaroa coxsfoot, 4lbs red clover, 1 lbs New Zealand white clover. This plot was sown in continuation of a definite plan of pasture improvement work on this farm. Germination was excellent and good grazing was obtained throughout the year. It would have been advisable to have included about 3obs of Italian rye grass per acre and to have reduced the perennial rye by this amount. Italian rye makes stronger growth during the first and second seasons than does perennial and will give more grazing. Italian rye should be included in all pasture mixtures to be sown on alluvial country. On this farm, as on many other farms, a considerable amount of pasture improvement work has been carried out with a resultant improvement in production and in the health of the stock. There is one feature that has arisen, however, and that requires attention. In flush periods, as in the past spring, the growth is so luscious that clover flavours are strong in the cream. The latter is frequently graded down with the resultant financial loss to the farmer. This flavour is very nearly unavoidable where a large area of improved pasture has been sown down. And what is more regrettable is the fact that it is the progressive farmer who is being penalised. It is possible to eliminate this flavour at the factory by the installation of a Vacreator or deodorizer which experience has shown also has the faculty of improving the general cream quality. It now devolves on the factories to install one of these machines and thus assist these progressive men. It would appear that the next step in the advancement of pasture improvement lies with the factories. Improved pastures will undoubtedly increase production so all that could be done to encourage this work will be for the betterment of the district and individual farmers.

December 1, 1934
'Magnet'
WOOL AWAY!
Wool from the Towamba and Pericoe districts is being brought to Eden for shipment to Sydney. Some growers are selling in the shed and various buyers, chief of whom are the old established Eden firm Messers Stone and Littley, are operating.

CARTING WOOL AT PERICOE
(POSSIBLY FROM PERICOE STATION).
c. 1925.

Photo courtesy M. Price

March 9, 1935
PERICOE

'Magnet'
* The farming prospects in Towamba district are better than for very many years. The maize crops look extraordinarily well; fodder crops are at normally heavy and grass is green, succulent and plentiful. Mr. Walter Roberts is filling a silo that will give him 80 tons of chaffed maize silage and has found it necessary to construct another silo that will enable him to conserve an additional 40 tons.
Mr. Wal Green is also about to fill his pit silo with choice chaffed fodders which, together with a nice lot of fine lucerne hay will provide his stock with ample reserves of feed for a considerable time to come. Other farms in the district appear to be well worked and an appearance of general improvement is everywhere observable.

March 9, 1935
'Magnet'
FARMERS PROBLEMS
Within the coastal territory served by the port of Eden are at least two important districts, namely Towamba and Burragate which could not fail to benefit largely by the local establishment of an operation of the branches of the Agricultural Bureau of New South Wales. Both are old and well established settlements. Both merit all the efforts that can be made to promote their further progress. With the many up to date and progressively minded farmers in and around these centres to constitute in each a nucleus, branches could easily be established and become important factors in furthering local interests and in assisting in cooperation with others to pave the way to progressive prosperity.

April 27, 1935
'Magnet'

TOWAMBA

Mr. Wal Green has just completed the filling of his silos. Others have also been filled by Mr. W. Roberts, Mr. C. Roberts and Mr. A. Clements. It is puzzling why more farmers do not go in for fodder conservation, particularly by the pit method which is recognised as a cheap and efficient way to make ensilage. There is no doubt that equally as good quality silage can be made in the pit as in the tub silo. Owing to the rainy season, maize crops have been considerably reduced in yield on the river flats. Blight has been very prevalent.

13 June 1935
'The Farmer and Settler'
SECOND WIN

Young Towamba Farmer on the Right Track for Success
MR. W. A. GREEN, of 'Limerick, Vale,' Towamba, is one of the younger generation of dairymen, and his winning of the Eden show society's competition against six others was a repetition of his last year's success. His stored fodder consisted of chaffed maize and sorghum silage, maize grain, and lucerne hay. This, with his improved postures, was typical of the holdings in this portion of the Towamba valley, where the only farming activities are maize growing and dairying. He improved his position so well this year that he will be hard to beat in the championship. A native of the far South Coast district, Mr. Green has been on his property ten years. After he improved his pastures with clover, he was seriously troubled with bloat in the early spring, and had to watch his herd very carefully at that period each year. He has got over that trouble now, which is another indication of the value of conserved fodder, and the benefits of the R.A.S. competitions; for, after a word or two with the instructor, Mr. J. L. Green, and the Judge, Mr, Stenning, last year, he found that by feeding silage to his cows in the morning before turning them on to the clover, he overcame the bloat trouble. Hiss herd consists of thirty-eight Jerseys, twenty-three of which are milking. His last test showed an average return of 300-lb. of butter a head, the twenty-three milkers giving a production of 6970-lb. of butter in the past twelve months. The foundation blood is Kameruka, and he has improved the strain with a Cole bull from Pambula, and a Robertson bull from Wyndham. At present he is hand-feeding his cows at the rate of 30-lb, of sorghum, 7-lb, of lucerne, and 4-lb, of ground maize. This, he says, not only keeps them well through the winter months, but means that when the flow of milk comes again, the cows are fit to begin delivery right away. In his little corner, among the foothills of the Great Divide, M. Green shares with his neighbors a constant battle against encroaching bracken fern. The beautiful evil can be seen high up on the hillsides overhanging the farms, and anyone who knows anything about it is seized with the imagery that it is waiting there for one sign of weakness on the part of those who have fought it back, before sweeping down on the lower pastures. Mr. Green is satisfied that ploughing up the fern, keeping it mown or cut, and planting vigorous pasture grasses is the only triple means of beating it. 'Limerick Vale' comprises 81 -acres, subdivided into numerous small paddocks. There are 12-acres in the flats on the river and 19-acres on the hills. The flat is estimated to carry a cow to 2-acres, and the hills a cow to 8-acrcs. Three acres are sown to maize for grain, 1 acres to maize for fodder, 3-acrcs to sorghum, 1-acre to lucerne, 1-acre to red clover, and 4-acres to perennial rye, cocksfoot, and red and white clover mixture. The fodder was stored in two pit silos and a shed, and consisted of 14-tons of lucerne hay, 64-tons of maize and saccaliec pit silage, and 5-tons of maize in the cob. This 83-tons was considered sufficient for forty-five cows over the five months, and as the capacity was sixteen, nearly the maximum (10), was gained for surplus. Excellent scores were given to Mr. Green for suitability, quality, and protection, and he will probably be among the place-getters in the championships.
(WINS IN 1934, 1937, - Editor)

June 15, 1935
'Magnet'
TOWAMBA
* Most farmers have completed harvesting their maize crops. Some splendid yields have been obtained from late maturing crops. The early varieties were badly blighted.
* On Tuesday last, Mr. H. C. Stenning, Chief Agricultural Instructor, Accompanied by Mr. Skidmore, Assistant Secretary of the R.A.S. together with the representatives of the 'Farmer and Settler' , 'Telegraph' and 'S.M.Herald', arrived to judge the entry of Mr. W.A.Green for the fodder championship, he being the winner of the local fodder competition with Mr. W.R. Roberts as runner up.

Mouldboard
plough.

Photo 'The Farmers' Handbook'

June 15, 1935
FODDER CONSERVATION
Eden District Farmers Example
Mr. Wal Green again the winner.
Splendid work in fodder conservation mainly by means of pit silos is revealed by the second annual competition conducted by Eden Exhibition Society in conjunction with the R.A.S. and again won by Mr. Wal Green of Towamba.
Mr. J. L. Green, agricultural instructor reports:
There were seven entries in this competition which is two in excess of the number obtained in the initial competition conducted in 1934.
MR. W. A. GREEN
Mr. W. A. Green of Towamba was again the winner with a very good entry which showed improvement in quantity of fodders stored and general quality of that of last season. This competitor shows what can be done on a small property in the way of fodder conservation; although he has only eighty-one acres of land, twelve of which is alluvial country and utilised to the full, the remainder being in rather poor hill land, country which never-the-less is being improved by the use of subterranean clover and super. Mr. Green was the first farmer on the Towamba River to fill a pit silo; this was in 1933. Each year it has been fed out during the winter and spring and filled the following summer. This season, owing to the success of the previous one, another pit has been constructed and filled. Most of the fodders inspected had been conserved this season and showed that Mr. Green believes in the value of feeding his stock in order to get the best from them. In fact, his production is taken as the basis for comparison at Towamba, more than one farmer saying that ' Wal Green got so much per cow for the month and mine was only a few shillings less'. Fortunately many local men have followed the lead of this farmer and thus we see in Towamba, well sown and cared-for pastures and comparatively large quantities of fodder, particularly pit silage, stored. It is only a few years ago that Towamba produced little else but pigs.
MR. ROBERTS
Mr. Roberts of 'Parkside' who secured second place submitted a fine entry also. He has two pit silos filled with maize, a large quantity of lucerne hay and maize grain but points were lost for location as the hay is a considerable distance from the feeding stalls - in fact, across the river - and for protection as stock were damaging this same hay. All the same, there was a good quantity of fodder conserved which when fed will help boost production.
MR. A.C. CLEMENTS
Mr. A.C. Clements who is competing for the first time, gained third place with an entry that was outstanding for the amount of red clover hay conserved. This particular clover does particularly well in Towamba and Kiah and local farmers would be well advised to sow down a small area, say one or two acres, with it alone at the rate of 10 per acre. This would give half an hour's grazing on pure clover during the summer months when the majority of clovers is more or less dormant. It is an accepted practice at Moruya and Bodalla and might be followed with advantage by farmers further south.
Mr. J. N. HARRIS
Mr. J. N. Harris of Kiah had in his entry a quantity of mangolds that had been pulled and stored in a heap. Mangolds yield very heavily on rich land. Yields of over one hundred tons per acre being obtained in New Zealand. The half acre on this farm yielded at the rate of about forty-five tons per acre. Cattle like mangolds and for pig feed they are grown quite extensively at Hawksbury College.
MR. D. LAING
It was not until this competition, the last judged, that an entrant was met who had protected his oaten hay from vermin damage. Mr. D. Laing, Towamba, had taken suitable precautions by building his small stack thirty inches off the ground and posts being wrapped with sheet tin and as a result his hay was as good as the day it was stacked. For those who conserve this type of hay a simple method such as this as protection might be adopted. When farmers have to enclose their stack with iron walls let into the ground to a depth of eighteen inches to prevent the ravages of mice and rats.
OBSERVATIONS
No other part of this district with the possible exception of Bodalla have farmers made full use of pit silos. Three years ago the Eden district didn't know them. Two farmers had two pits each. In not one instance has the silage come out of a pit other than as good quality stuff. Another pleasing feature is that all the pits are of the trench type and have been well constructed and carefully filled. Mr. Clements constructed his first, this year and with two men, two horses, a plough and scoop, the work was completed in five days. Six and a half hours work being done each day. Except for making the batters at each end less than the usual length, and having to use pick and shovel for this, the job was completed without any hand work being necessary. This pit is fifty-two feet long, eleven feet wide at the top and ten at the bottom and six feet deep and will hold forty tons of silage. Filling took just on five weeks and as a result the pit has not settled down below the ground level which is a fault frequently seen with many pits. Mr. Harris of Kiah, on easier working ground, excavated a pit forty-eight feet long, nine feet wide and six feet deep in quicker time than this. The filling was extended over a period of five weeks and as a consequence he has a well filled pit that is showing no loss at all on the surface. Farmers in older dairying districts could learn a lot from the farmers of Kiah and Towamba and it is safe to state that many of the latter have done more in the way of pasture improvement and fodder conservation in three years than many farmers, further north have done in a lifetime. Production figures prove the value of the work being done.

Horse drawn scoop used to dig out silage pits.
Photo courtesy Leo Farrell
June 22, 1935
'Magnet'
PERICOE
* Very rough, windy weather which caused considerable damage to sheds and fences was experienced last weekend.

August 10, 1935
'Magnet'
Maize pulling recently finished on most district farms, has been a disappointing business as far as most of the Kiah River farmers are concerned. Owing to much wet weather during the growing period, blight played havoc with the crops and of course there was no lack of the usual vermin and other pests. The experience of Mr. Jack Perrin of the lower reaches of the river is typical; he informs us whereas he obtained over 800 bushells from a patch of maize land last year and that inspite of floods his return this year is only about 300 bushells - just enough for his own small requirements. He sowed early and fared badly and most of the others did likewise; a few who sowed late were much more fortunate.

Excerpt from 'The Farmer's Handbook' Third Edition
Department of Agriculture, New South Wales.

Issued by direction of The Hon.W.F.Dunn, M.L.A., Minister of Agriculture . 1921

Mangels, Mangolds or Mangel - Wurzel
The mangel is well adapted for providing food for pigs, cows or stud sheep because of its succulent and palatable nature. On fertile soil and abundant rainfall a greater yield is obtained than from any other crop; but although under such circumstances the roots reach their highest development, profitable crops can be raised on medium soils and with comparatively low rainfall. In England it occupies an important position among bulk feeds and large quantities are raised annually for stock of all kinds; in this State little attention is paid to it except for pig feed and in isolated cases, for dairy cows. This is partly because green crops such as maize and barley can take its place and are easily raised; but nevertheless mangels possess certain qualities which make them a desirable addition to our list of crops especially at certain periods of the year when green feed is scarce.


COMPLAINT Re: STRAYING STOCK
Mr. R.M Brownlie complained of the nuisance caused by straying stock on roads at Towamba. Engineer to attend to the matter at Towamba and at any other place required.

November 30, 1935
'Magnet'
TOWAMBA
*After experiencing rather cool weather with a couple of frosts this month, summer came with a vengeance; the thermometer reached the hundred degrees mark today (Wednesday). We could do with a shower of rain to freshen the pastures though hot weather is needed for maize crops which are very backward.

11 June 1936
'The Farmer and Settler'
TOWAMBA

'Limerick Vale' as a Closer Settlement Argument.
For the third year in succession, Mr. W. A. Green, of "Limerick Vale", Towamba, was successful in winning the fodder conservation competition promoted by Eden agricultural society. This property consists of only 81 -acres and is an example of what closer settlement means for such districts. Mr. Green is a married man with five children, he runs a car, participates in rifle-shooting, fishing, and other sports, and thoroughly en joys life. He has been on the property for eleven years, and has spent sixteen or seventeen years in the district. He owns the farm, and rents 2-acres. There are about 12-acres of alluvial flats on the Towamba River. The remainder is undulating granite loam soil. The curse of this district is bracken fern, and in an attempt to beat it, Mr. Green has ploughed 5 acres of fern.

18 June 1937
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
MAIZE CHAMPIONSHIP.
South Coast Division.
TOWAMBA ENTRY WINS.

The Royal Agricultural Society announced yesterday that Mr. W. R. Mitchell, of Roseneath, Towamba, via Eden, had been awarded the first position in the South Coast maize championship. Mr. R. Cochrane, of Parrabel, Bega, was second, and Navua, Ltd., Grose Wold, via Richmond, third.
The judge, Mr. W. D. Kerle, special agricultural instructor, said that, considering the difficult season, the average yield of 110 bushels to the acre for the competition was excellent.
The winning crop of Leaming was grown on the fertile Towamba flats, and was expected to yield 120 bushels to the acre. Mr. Kerle said the crop was very pleasing in appearance, being tall and straight. Germination was almost perfect with three grains dropped 22 inches apart and 3ft 31n between the rows. Weeds were practically absent due to harrowing a week after sowing, twice scarifying in November, hilling in December, and hand hoeing once. The ground was first ploughed on August 10 with the mouldboard set six inches deep. Cob rot was present, and some root rot also caused loss of points. The seed was typical of the variety. The ears were not large but were produced in profusion.
Mr. Cochrana's crop of Funk's Yellow Dent was sown on an old cultivation paddock of alluvial loam. It had been disc-ploughed early in July, and re-ploughed in September, the harrows following each ploughing. The rigid-type cultivator was used just, prior to planting, which took place in the first week of October. Light furrows were run out 3ft 9in apart, and seed dropped, one and two grains 15in to 18in apart. The maize was very well grown, with exceptionally good ear development. It was estimated to yield 115 bushels per acre. The crop was lodged to some extent, and the root rot fungus was generally associated with this condition. Some secondary cob rot, following ear worm invasion, was also present. The variety type was very good.

May 20, 1941
'The Braidwood Review and District Advocate '
DINGOES! BLACK, BRINDLE, SPANIEL AND COLLAR-MARKED VARIETIES

Board's Insults Not Appreciated
At the last meeting of the Pastures Protection Board in Bega there was more trouble over dingo scalps. Since the Board raised the bonus to 2 per head many scalps have come in, and the directors have not been satisfied that some at least were pure dingo or showing dingo characteristics. A letter was received from Mr. A. J. Pheeney, of Wolumla, in reference to a scalp sent in by his son, Austin, and rejected by the Board. Mr. Pheeney stated he was surprised this one had been rejected while the other was paid for. Both had been caught in a trap near Chalk Hills by his son, who was now in Camp. Chalk Hills was the home of dingoes, and they could be heard howling at night. He considered that it was a personal insult on the part of the Board to reject one of the scalps, as it made it appear that his son was out to defraud the Board, and that the Board thought, 'Oh, one will be enough for Pheeney.' He did not appreciate the Board's joke about collar-marks at his son's expense. The matter of the bonus of 2 did not concern him, but these were his personal views. The reading of the letter made the directors sit up and take note and they said it was insulting to suggest that the Board decided that 'one was enough for Pheeney.' A motion was carried that the Board resented the tone of the letter, and the remarks were insulting and uncalled for, and that Mr. Pheeney be informed that the scalp thrown out had no characteristics of the dingo, while the other had some characteristics. Mr. Kewin, of Wyndham, had writ ten asking why scalps sent in by him had been rejected, and the secretary stated that he had replied to Mr. Kewin in the same terms as to Mr. Pheeney, that the scalps did not show dingo characteristics. Mr. Connelly said he was speaking to Mr. Umback at Towamba on the previous night, and he told him that Mr. Allen Brown, of Nangutta, had informed him that be had trapped dingoes similar to those sent in by Mr. Kewin. They were numerous down that way, and were black and tan in colour. They appeared to be a distinctive type of wild dog. Mr. Umback had to bring his sheep in close to the homestead to save them from these dogs. Mr. Connelly though these men should be protected by the Board pay ing a bonus less than 2 for such scalps. Mr. McGregor said he had heard of such dogs, and was told that they appeared to be a cross with the black spaniel.- 'District News.'

THE AUSTRALIAN PRIMARY
PRODUCERS UNION
TOWAMBA BRANCH MEMBERS
SAME AS TABLE BELOW BUT THESE
NAMES ADDED FOR 1955 BUT NO PRODUCE
LISTED
16th February, 1955
LUCAS. R.A. Daisy Hill, Towamba
ORMAN. A.F. Sunnyside, Towamba
McINTOSH. G.C. Nungatta, Rockton
ROBERTS. A.C. Parkside, Towamba

THE AUSTRALIAN PRIMARY
PRODUCERS UNION
TOWAMBA BRANCH
£3/3/- Members 14th April, 1958
BEASLEY. B.D. Back Creek, Towamba Wool, Beef, Maize
BROTHERTON. W.L. Station, Towamba Wool, Meat
BUTCHER. J.E. Limerick Vale, Towamba Dairy, Pigs, Maise
CLEMENTS. A.J.& SON Model Farm, Towamba Dairy, Pigs, Maise
DICKIE. & SON Honeysuckle Farm, Towamba Maize, Pigs, S&P, Peas, Beans, Tomatoes
FARRELL. D.J. & SONS Rockleigh, Burragate Meat, Wool
FLEMING. V.W. Sunnyside, Rockton Wool, Meat, Potatoes
HARRIS. H.E. Cambourne, Lower Towamba Vegs, Maize
LOGAN. C.S. Restalrig, Towamba Wool, Beef
LOVE. J.C. Elmgrove, Towamba Wool, Beef
LOVE. O.L.D. Hillview, Towamba Wool, Meat, Pigs,Maize
LOVE. R.G. Tyrone, Towamba Wool, Beef, Maize
MARTIN. W. Hayfield, Pericoe via Towamba Wool, Meat, Maize
PAGE. C.W. Riverdale, Lower Towamba Pigs, Maize, Vegs, Meat
PARKER. D.E. The Pines, Towamba Dairy, Wool, Meat, Maize
RYAN. I.W. Wattle Park, Towamba Wool, Beef
SOUTH. R.S.W. Glenoak, Towamba Dairy, Maize, Pigs
TASKER. A. & SON Ridges, Towamba Wool, Meat, Maize, Pigs
TASKER. H. & SONS Jerusalem, Burragate Wool, Beef
UMBACK BROS Daisy Bank, Wyndham Wool Meat
UMBACK. F.J. Marion, Burragate Wool, Meat
UMBACK. V. & SONS Baelcoola, Bombala Wool, Meat
WALTERS. J.T.P. Lyndhurst, Burragate Wool, Meat


THE AUSTRALIAN PRIMARY
PRODUCERS UNION
TOWAMBA BRANCH
3 August, 1966
BEASLEY. B.P. Back Creek, Towamba Wool, Meat, Maize
BUTCHER. J.F. Limerick Vale, Towamba Dairy, Pigs, Maize
CLEMENTS & SON Model Farm, Towamba Dairy, Pigs, Maize
FARRELL. D.J. & SONS Rockleigh, Burragate Meat, Wool
HARRIS. H.F. Cambourne, Lower Towamba Vegs, Sorghum
LAWRANCE. D.J. Dunblane, Burragate, via Bega Wool, Meat Vegs
LOGAN. C.S. Restalrig, Towamba Wool, Meat
LOVE. A.J. Towamba Wool, Meat
LOVE. R.G. Tyrone, Towamba Wool, Meat, Maize
McDONALD. C.V.S. Towamba Dairy, Pigs
PARKER. D.E. The Pines, Towamba Dairy, Wool Meat, Maize
SOUTH. L. Towamba Dairy, Meat, Pigs
UMBACK BROS. F.G.& A.J. Daisy Bank, Wyndham Wool, Meat
UMBACK. S.V. Burragate Wool, Meat