Spelling as written in newspapers

March 1, 1872
'The Bega Gazette and Eden District or Southern Coast Advertiser'

* Prospecting. - We hear that a party of four or five have started from Bega for testing the correctness of the gold rumours in connexion with Towamba.

'The Manaro Mercury, and Cooma and Bombala Advertiser'
Wednesday 15 June 1881
Towamba Gold Field.

In pursuance of the provisions of the "Mining Act of 1874," I, Lord Augustus William Frederick Spencer Loftus, Governor of the colony of New South Wales aforesaid, with the advice of the Executive Council, do hereby proclaim that the following shall be deemed a gold-field within the meaning and for the purposes of the said Act, that is to say:- County of Auckland, parish of Kanoonah, Coolungubra, Mataganah, Burragate, Boyd, Imlay, Pericoe, Nalbaugh, Genoa, Nungatta, Yambulla, Sturt, and Towamba, area about 516 square miles. The Crown lands within the following boundaries: Commencing at the south west corner of portion No. 56, parish of Genoa; and bounded thence on part of the east by part of the west boundary of that portion bearing north to the boundary between the parishes of Boyd and Genoa; thence on part of the north by the north boundaries of the parishes of Boyd and Burragate, bearing west to the east boundary of the parish of Yuglamah ; thence on part of the West by part of that boundary bearing south to Towamba River ; thence by that river and the boundary between the parishes of Yuglamah and Kanoonah bearing north-westerly to the boundary between the counties of Wellesley and Auckland; thence by that boundary bearing generally southerly to the westernmost corner of the parish of Nalbaugh; thence by part of the boundary between that parish and the parish of Bondi bearing generally south-easterly to the west extremity of the south boundary of the parish of Nalbaugh; thence on part of the south by part of that boundary bearing east to the north-west corner of the parish of Genoa; thence by a west boundary of that parish bearing south to the south-east corner of portion No. 8, parish of Genoa; thence by the south boundary of that portion bearing west to Bondi Creek; thence by that creek downwards to Nungatta Creek; thence by that creek downwards to the boundaries between the colonies of Victoria and New South Wales; thence by part of that boundary bearing south easterly to the west boundary of the parish of Waalimma; thence again on the east by the west boundary of that parish bearing north to the south west corner of the parish of Yambulla; thence again on the south by the north boundaries of the parishes of Waalimma and Buckle bearing east to the west boundary of the parish of Gooyan; thence on the remainder of the east by the east boundaries of the parishes of Sturt, Towamba, and Imlay, and an eastern boundary of the parish of Boyd bearing north to the south boundary of portion No. 56 aforesaid; thence on the remainder of the north by part of the south boundary of that portion bearing west to the point of commencement. Exclusive of the village and suburban lands of the villages of Burragate and Sturt. Includes the parishes of Kanoonah, Coolungubra, Mataganah, Burragate, Boyd, Imlay, Pericoe, Nalbaugh, Genoa, Nungatta, Yambulla, Sturt, and Towamba. To be called the Towamba Gold-field. [Ms. 81-7518.] Given under my hand and seal at Government House, Sydney, this sixth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, and in the forty-fourth year of her Majesty's reign. By His Excellency's command, James Hoskins.

'The Manaro Mercury, and Cooma and Bombala Advertiser'
Wednesday 22 April 1885

Towamba Gold Field.
In pursuance of the provisions of the " Mining Act of 1874," , I Lord Augustus William Frederick Spencer Loftus, Governor of the colony of New South Wales aforesaid, with the advice of the Executive Council, do hereby proclaim that the following shall be deemed a gold field within the meaning and for the purposes of the said Act, that is to say : -
County of Auckland, parish of Bondi, area about 40,000 acres: The Crown lands within the following boundaries : Commencing on the boundary between the counties of Auckland and Wellesley, at the westernmost corner of the parish of Nalbaugh, county Auckland ; thence bounded by the south-western boundary of that parish south-easterly., and by part of its south boundary easterly, to the north-west corner of the parish of Genoa ; thence by a west boundary of that parish bearing south to the south-east corner of portion No. 3, parish of Bondi ; thence by the south boundary of that portion bearing west to Bondi Creek; thence by that creek and by Nungatta Creek downwards to the boundary between the colonies of Victoria and New South Wales ; thence by that colony boundary north-westerly to the aforementioned boundary between the counties of Auckland and Wellesley ; and thence by that boundary northerly and north-easterly to the point of commencement. To be called "An extension to the Towamba Gold Field." [Ms. 85-3492]

February 19, 1891
'Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate'

* In connection with the Pambula gold fields, the Bega Gazette says:- "Almost each I.S.N. and T.S.N. Co.'s boat that leaves our southern ports takes away a big list of miners, many of them experienced, practical men, who came to the field to find work, and have signally failed, some of them dropping the little money they had when they arrived. Country adjacent to Wyndham, Towamba, Eden, and all along the Victorian border has now been thoroughly prospected for alluvial, and although some few bright patches have been struck, enough payable gold to keep the wandering diggers going cannot be found."

'Pambula Voice' 15 December, 1899
GOLD DISCOVERY
Messers N. and J. G. Jansen have reported to the local Mining Warden's Office the discovery of payable gold on their prospecting protection area, parish Yambulla, situated some twenty miles south and two miles north of Timbillica River. The yield of gold is given as four ounces, 16 dwt 12 gr, from three and a half tons of ore. Tailings have not yet been treated.

Dutchess Mine. Yambulla.

'Pambula Voice' February 16, 1900
THE NEW GOLD FIELD

Considerable misconception exists with regard to the locality of a recent discovery of payable gold some miles from Pericoe. In the majority of cases it is associated with Timbillica and is believed to be part of an extension of the latter gold field. This is a mistake. The new find is not so far south as Timbillica and is reached by a different road. Its proper designation should be the Yambulla Gold Field, and Pericoe (12 or 15 miles distant) is the nearest post office. Several local miners have recently visited the find and one or two have pegged out claims. There are some sixty men on the ground and a few sales have already been effected. While a large area is 'pegged' though as yet not many leases have actually been taken up. There are numerous good surface shows and every indication that the field will prove permanent. But so far none of the claims have been tested at a depth. The leases applied for vary in area from six to twenty acres. Mr. Sam Solomon, son of Mr. Solomon of Eden, holding two of the largest leases. Two leases are also held by a Sydney syndicate. The field is 36 miles from Eden and the best route is via Pericoe Post Office though there is a shorter but very rough track from Towamba. Brothers Jansen were the first to report striking payable gold though Mr. A. Brown has also worked in the vicinity for some years. Mr. J. M. Ryan, butcher and storekeeper at Pericoe visits the mine twice a week with a supply of provisions.

McDonald's battery with part of Yambulla township in background.1905
In foreground: Tom Hite and Tom Rowley with their
horse team, Ted Hoff, Mrs. Hoff, Bob McDonald,
Martin Pola and the two Hoff children.
Photo courtesy Eden Killer Whale Museum

'Pambula Voice' March 16, 1900
EDEN ITEMS
There are now upwards of one hundred men on the Yambulla gold fields and latest reports from the field are of a favourable nature. New finds of gold bearing reefs are being made daily and in addition to upwards of one hundred acres leased for gold mining purposes. A large tract of country has been pegged out by intending lessees. It seems probable that some attention will now be devoted to prospecting the locality of Arsenic Creek near Nethercote in the vicinity of which auriferous and argentiferous stone has for some time been known to exist.
* T. Hite Snr., and party have applied for a gold mining lease of three acres, parish Yambulla.
* It is stated on what appears to be reliable authority that the completion of the purchase by a combined local Sydney sindicate of Browns mine at Yambulla for 1,200 has definately been decided upon.

'Pambula Voice'
March 30, 1900

* A licensing court will be held at Eden on 5th April.
* The undermentioned gold leases at Yambulla have been applied for since the 1st March: J. G. Barron 20 acres, P. Lindwall 8 acres, T. Hite 2 acres, C. James 2 acres, T. Hite & party 3 acres, E. Falkner 6 acres, S. Solomon 12 acres, P. Lindwall 8 acres, total 61 acres.
* A promising find of gold is reported from Yambulla. It appears that a miner named Frank Woods while passing near what at first light appeared to be a huge mass of granite stopped to knock off some pieces of stone, to his surprise found that the supposed mass of granite was in reality a huge body of quartz carrying gold wherever tested. The find is in hilly country adjoining Martin's claim and situated north-west from Solomon's mines. The discovery is regarded locally as being of great importance.

The Sydney Morning Herald
2 March 1900
THE TIMBILLICA GOLD RUSH.
Yumbulla, improperly known as Timbillica, has 17 miles to the south-west of Towamba. All the surrounding country for miles around has for many years been known to be gold-bearing Wog Wog River was worked for alluvial some 25 years ago, and some rich pockets rewarded a few fortunate diggers. It has always a been a local opinion, and also a geological one, that sooner or later some rich reefs would be found in the locality, and if pre- sent appearances count for anything, the find has been made. The country is of a granite formation, or more properly a porphyntic description of that substance. The country has been much disturbed at some early period, the formation being much broken. The reefs run parallel across country in an easterly and westerly direction for about three miles, or probably more, one line of reef being from 1 ft. to 2ft. in width. The claim now attracting most attention, that of Mr. A. Brown, has a reef some 5ft. wide, and bearing gold throughout. This property is under offer to a local syndicate for a good sum, a substantial deposit having been paid down. About one hundred men are now on the ground, and the numbers are being added to daily. One word of caution must be given. Nothing but surface work has been done so far, although it is proved that the reef is gold-bearing all along the line for a distance of about two miles. Besides the main reef, and one running parallel with it at a distance of 200ft., are several others, all showing good gold, some small leaders running into these being very rich, assays giving as high as 14oz. or 15oz, gold per ton. From the port of Eden, Twofold Bay, to Towamba, a distance of 20 miles, there is a splendid road, but from there to the diggings is rough though passable for vehicular traffic. There is an abundance of timber and water at the field. The only machinery on the ground is a 5-head battery worked by water power; but several speculators have announced their intention of erecting machinery immediately. 'The principal claims are those of Brown and party, who are working an open cut about 50ft. along the line of reef, and have about 100 tons of good crushing stuff at grass. Next in order on the east, and about a mile from this claim, is the property of the projectors, Messrs Burns and Smith, which is also under offer. The show here is a very good one, the reef being about 2ft. wide, and said to average from 2oz. to 2oz. gold per ton. Then follow the claims of Hartneady and party, who appear to be on Brown's line, the reef showing here about 15in, wide and carrying good stone proved for a distance of 120ft.
Power and party's reef also shows good stone. Several other claims on one or other of the parallel lines mentioned are on very good stone. Provisions, &c., are obtainable on the field.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
22 May 1900
MINING IN NEW SOUTH WALES.
THE YAMBULLA GOLDFIELD.
SOME PROMISING DISCOVERIES NEAR THE VICTORIAN BORDER.
AN IMMENSE AURIFEROUS GRANITE BELT.

(by our special mining reporter.)
Since the beginning of the present year reports more or less of a sensational kind have been circulated concerning the discovery of gold reefs on the Yambulla field, and it was with the object of placing before readers of the "Herald" some data concerning the new camp that the writer recently visited the place. Yambulla can be reached from several points both by water and by rail. Eden is the nearest seaport and Cooma the closest railroad station. Yambulla is 40 miles by road from Eden, via Towamba and Pericoe, or it can be reached direct from Eden and Towamba without going to Pericoe, although there is a difference of four or five miles less of bush truck in favour of Pericoe. From Cooma via Bombala, Yambulla can be reached in 90 miles. The roads are good to within from 12 to 18 miles of the field; even the bush track is fast becoming passable, although the whole journey traverses the valleys and tops of the Jingera and Indigo ranges, the gradients being uncomfortably precipitous in many instances. The field, as might be expected, is just now in its preliminary stages of development although since the beginning of the year each week has brought a fresh batch of prospectors anxious to locate a golden streak. The number now on the field may be put down at 100 all told, and the number of gold-bearing reefs at from 20 to 25. Yambulla is sometimes called Timbillica, after a small stream or creek which heads from the Indigo mountain and runs to the south of the field. The mines are, however, in the parish of Yambulla, county of Auckland, immediately at the eastern foot of the Indigo mountain, below a "trig" station called Mount Poole, in the mining district of Eden.

'Pambula Voice' May 8, 1900
MINING
During last week the Pambula Mine Limited treated the following ores for Diorites Syndicate, 20 tons yielding 11 ounces of gold, the tailings assayed 8 dwts per ton. A parcel of 4 tons from Messers C. J. Roberts and parties, Indigo Mine, Yambulla, yielded 6 ounces gold per ton from plates and boxes, the tailings assayed 1 ounce 1 dwt of fined gold and 1 ounce 14 dwt fine silver per ton.


'Evening News'
23 May 1900
MINING.
BOMBALA,
Tuesday.- Roberts and party have crushed at the Britisher's Battery, Pipeclay Creek, four tons of stone taken from their mine at Yambulla. The yield was at the rate of 9oz 5dwt of gold per ton. The stone was taken full width from the reef, and the result of the crushing is regarded as very satisfactory. At Solomon's (late Brown's) Mine sinking is being steadily proceeded with. At one end the reef was 7ft 6in wide, with stone of good quality. The proprietors contemplate the erection of a battery on their mine. With a view of facilitating access to the gold field, an attempt is being made to get a track opened up between Towamba and the field direct. Mr Alfred Jones, to be warden's clerk, mining registrar, &c , at Towamba.

May 26, 1900
'South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus'
EDEN.

Encouraging reports continue to arrive from the Yambulla mines. In Solomon's (late Brown's) mine the reef is said to be 7ft 6in wide and carrying good gold. In another mine (Haugh's) at a depth of about 40 feet the stone is rich in gold, and the full width, of the reef is being taken out for crushing. A parcel of a few tons of quartz from Barron's leases is being sent away for special treatment.


June 1, 1900
'Bombala Times and Manaro and Coast Districts General Advertiser'
MINING IN NEW SOUTH WALES.
THE YAMBULLA GOLDFIELD.
SOME SENSATIONAL DISCOVERIES NEAR THE VICTORIAN BORDER
.
AN IMMENSE AURIFEROUS GRANITE BELT.

(By S. M. Herald's Special Mining Reporter.)
Since the beginning of the present year reports more or less of a sensational kind have been circulated concerning the discovery of gold reefs on the Yambulla field, and it was with the object of placing before readers of the Herald some data concerning the new camp that the writer recently visited the place. Yambulla can be reached from several points both by water and by rail. Eden is the nearest seaport and Cooma the closest railway station. Yambulla is 40 miles by road from Eden, via Towamba and Pericoe, or it can be reached direct from Eden and Towamba without going to Pericoe, although there is a difference of four or five miles less of bush track in favor of Pericoe. From Cooma, via Bombala, Yambulla can be reached in 90 miles. The roads are good to within from 12 to 18 miles of the field; even the bush track is fast becoming passable, although the whole journey traverses the valleys and tops of the Jingera and Indigo ranges, the gradients being uncomfortably precipitous in many instances. The field, as might be expected, is just now in its preliminary stages of development, although since the beginning of the year each week has brought a fresh batch of prospectors anxious to Locate a golden streak. The number now on the field maybe put down at 100 all told, and the number of gold bearing reefs at from 20 to 25. Yambulla is sometimes called Timbillica, after a small stream or creek which heads from the Indigo mountain and runs to the south of the field. The mines are, however, in the parish of Yambulla, county of Auckland, immediately at the eastern foot of the Indigo mountain, below a 'trig' station called Mount Poole, in the mining district of Eden. There are several claim ants to the first gold discovery. Mr. N. Jansen is said to have been the first to hoist the red flag, but Messrs. Burns and Smith are said to have been the first per sons to register a claim, on November 6, 1899. Over 40 years ago, however, the Rev. W. B. Clarke located gold almost on the very place where the first recent discovery was made, and just on the Victorian and New South Wales border, not more than 10 miles from the present location, miners have been mining quantities of gold for years past. The whole of the country has been occupied as pastoral holdings, and although gold was known to exist there it was not until within the past two years that any attempt was made to prospect. The writer made his way to the field from Wyndham, crossing the western flank of the Jingera Ranges in the vicinity of Towamba and Pericoe, where they branch and fork with the rest of the mountainous spurs. Apparently the gold-bearing belt extends from the Jingeras southwards to and across the Victorian border, and as little attention has been paid to the country there is ample scope for a well-organised system of prospecting. Unlike a great many other parts of the colony, particularly away from the coastal range, the prevailing rocks in which auriferous and various other metalliferous deposits exists are granites of various kinds, passing from true ternary in character to nearly true porphyry. Quartz dykes of segregation also occur, and the granites occasion ally assume a hornblendic syouitic character scarcely distinguishable from green, stones. The prevailing colour of granite is white, but often there are patches of a reddish hue, being iron-stained. In some instances the granites are felspathi; in other porphyritie, showing small grains of crystals with sparkling faces. Patches are micacious, and occasionally one meets with a dioritic intrusion. The granites however, are all more or less in a state of' decomposition resulting from exposure to severe frosts and rain. Enormous granite bosses, nodular shaped, are seen throughout the country, and in places there is evidence of stratification. The surface however, is so densely strewn with decayed vegetable matter that many of the joints and cracks of the country are hidden from view. Apparently the whole of the reef or lode discoveries strike east and west and make along the low lying ranges and spurs leading from the Indigo mountain. The auriferous deposits have been found on the high peak of the range and it may be that as the country is opened up deposits will be found on the western side, leading to the spurs of that side of the mountain. Work, however, has been centred on the eastern side up to now and from north to south, covering some few miles in extent. Some idea may be gathered of the area which the pre- sent locations cover when by hard and fast walking the distance could not be covered in less than a day and a half if one travelled the whole time, omitting to inspect the nature of each as the distance was covered. When the writer entered upon the field he was under the impression, from published reports that finds of a sensational character were to be seen; but in this there was disappointment. There are no sensational discoveries, but on a number of purely prospecting shows there is surface ore of grade which would be counted highly payable under conditions more favourable than exist at present for reducing the material to convertible values. By this the writer means that, the ore mainly is densely pyritic in character, and the amount of oxidised ore on the camp so far does not amount to much. The surface ore, of course is free milling, but it does not continue to any depth before it changes to ore of a pyritic character. There can be no doubt that the dolly has proved good gold values to exist in the surface ore, and there is justification for the belief that the lower arsenical-iron ore carries gold so far as assay tests have been made; but the great and important point that has yet to be solved is how far down the deposits carry their gold contents. It may be that the strong surface deposits will live down to good depths, and carry with them a payable gold grade. But as yet on no place on the field has the work sufficiently advanced to enable one to tell whether the gold runs in chutes or whether it is confined to any particular side- hanging on footwall of the reefs or lodes. In some instances the quartz is glassy in appearance showing coarse gold embedded in the solid material; in others small nests of gold appear in honeycombed quartz and a ferruginous quartzitic material. One or two of the lodes are more or less metamorphic, and in several instances they are divided by intrusive bands of decomposed granitic rocks. Most of them are located in a soft granitic formation; forming the channel between granites of a harder sub stance. The lodes where they are well defined carry with them good walls, but the quartz is blocky, and apparently makes horizontal joints. The lode matrix also shows good gold prospects; in fact, there is nothing to complain of so far as the grade of the material won up to now is concerned. A few of the claims are being vigorously worked whilst others are apparently satisfied to go slow with the work of development. Very little would be gained by giving a detailed account of each prospecting hole put down on the field. It is sufficient for all purposes to say that nearly the whole of the shows are promising, and with a vigorous system of prospecting many good discoveries might be made in this part of the country, showing as it does a large belt of practically untried ground. Perhaps one of the best signs that the country is auriferous is the fact that all the small watercourses leading from the eastern falls of the Indigo mountain carry gold in fact alluvial miners are now mining some nice gold from a main stream running through the country from the main range. The streams are narrow about this part and in low-lying lands very swampy and bouldery. The Timbillica Creek carries gold, but it is only a narrow stream, extremely erratic and rough. The waters coming from the south end of the field empty into the Genoa River and on the northern end of the field the waters from numerous small streams empty into the Towamba River towards the port of Eden. Referring again to the reefs or lodes of Yam-' bulla, the writer may mention that some extraordinary stories have been circulated about the discovery of immense reefs studded with gold outcropping far above the surface. Although diligent search was made I failed to find the alleged discovery. The Yambulla Mining Company, some blocks worked by Mr. C. W. Richards on behalf of some Sydney gentlemen, about a mile to the east of the former property, the one worked by Mr Haugh, and others in the vicinity might be mentioned as showing very fine surface prospects. The Yambulla Mining Company have at grass over 100 tons of ore which should give very profitable results. The shaft at the time of my visit was down some 16ft., but in addition to this a deal of ore had been mined along the western end from the shafts near the surface. The reef measures 7ft, across from surface to present depth, and is trace able at surface for quite a distance west towards the main Indigo range, where another shaft has been sunk upon it to a, shallow depth. On this end although it carries well-defined walls, it is not so large, and apparently is of low grade. The show, however, is a very promising one, and should develop into a good property. Mr. Hansen's property, upon which he has hoisted the red flag, has given 1oz,, results from one or two parcels put through at his small prospecting battery situated in the 'Timbillica Creek. The property is about half a mile to the south of the Yambulla Mining Company's property and in its vicinity some good surface ore has been found by other prospectors. Each find on the field apparently runs in a parallel direction east and west, with a general pitch to the south. The position of the field may be shortly sized up. So far as gold-bearing locations are concerned, there are many, and as I before said the surface ores carry good gold values; it is only a question as to whether these gold values carry down into the miner's alised zones. If this be proved universal, then there is a good future before the new Yambulla field. There is plenty of room and scope for mining skill on the field. Persons going there during the present winter months require to be equipped with plenty of warm clothing and blankets, also strong watertight boots. Provisions can be obtained at a reasonable price, and there is plenty of water and grass for horses. Timber and bark for building purposes are both plentiful. Excessively cold weather is the principal thing miners will need to provide for. Stores and a butcher's and baker's shop are already on the ground; in fact a small mining village is now in course of formation. Postal communication has already been established and also a news agency.


'Pambula Voice' June 8, 1900
PERICOE

The rainfall recorded here for the month of April was 460 points and for May, 1360 points. Most of the rain in May fell between the 14th and 28th and caused a flood in creeks and rivers delaying the mails, tore up the roads and did various other damage. It is said the road from Pericoe to Yambulla is in a fearful state and traffic can only be carried on with the greatest difficulty.
Those miners who were sluicing for alluvial gold in the vicinity of Yambulla have had to abandon work for the present owing to the flood. One of them, Mr. Fergus Sullivan who was sluicing for about four weeks showed me some very course gold he had won and considering the short time he was at it he has done very well. Mr. W. Ryan Jnr., also showed me some gold won by sluicing but it was a great deal finer than Sullivan's. It is stated that Lock Brothers have made splendid wages sluicing winning a considerable amount of gold.
Now that the Reappraisement Act is in force some of the selectors here are filling in forms to have their holdings reappraised. In many cases I expect to see them get their deeds as they have paid more in installments than the real value of the land. Many others ought to find themselves within easy reach of final payment. Of course a great deal will depend on obtaining a fair and reasonable assessment and care will be necessary in fixing values. Much trouble is caused at times owing to the valuators being theorists. I personally have a strong leaning to practical men with a full knowledge of country life and what can be done on poor land. With such men the matter might easily be settled but with men of theory only, it is difficult to arrive at true values. I am quite certain that a large number of selections in this district are worth nearer 5/- per acre than 1 per acre set upon them. It is to be devoutly hoped that practical experienced men will be appointed as valuators so that when the work is done it may be completed before the local land boards without recourse to appeal and settlement before the land court. The old Land Act seems so unreasonable for when the eyes were picked out of the country those who were forced by circumstances to take inferior and almost useless land, were compelled to pay as much for it as others paid for the choicest spots but as the old saying has it, "the longest lane has a turn". The turn has at last come and the only gleam of hope for thousands who were so unfortunate as to settle on poor land. Poor land will keep a man poor and if he got it for nothing it would never be worth double the price. I can say from my own personal experience in this district which extends over 16 years, I would say, "don't have anything to do with poor land" but if circumstances has compelled you to have it, only take it at its true value.

Miner's residence. 1900

'Pambula Voice' June 8, 1900
YAMBULLA GOLD FIELD
From "Sydney Morning Herald" special reporter:
Since the beginning of the present year reports more or less of a sensational kind have been circulated concerning the discovery of gold reefs on the Yambulla field and it was with the object of placing before the readers of the "Herald" some data concerning the new camp that the writer recently visited the place. Yambulla can be reached from several points both by water and by rail. Eden is the nearest sea port and Cooma the closest railway station. Yambulla is 40 miles by road from Eden via Towamba and Pericoe or it can be reached direct from Eden and Towamba without going to Pericoe although there is a difference of four or five miles less of bush track in favour of Pericoe. From Cooma via Bombala, Yambulla can be reached in 90 miles. The roads are good to within from 12 to 18 miles of the field; even the bush track is fast becoming passable, although the whole journey traverses the valleys and tops of the Jingera and Indigo ranges, the gradients being uncomfortably precipitous in many instances. The field, as might be expected, is just now in its preliminary stages of development, although since the beginning of the year each week has brought a fresh batch of prospectors anxious to locate a golden streak.
The number now on the field may be put down at one hundred all told and the number of gold bearing reefs at from 20 to 25. Yambulla is sometimes called Timbillica after a small stream or creek which heads from the Indigo Mountain and runs to the south of the field. The mines are, however, in the Parish of Yambulla, County of Auckland, immediately at the eastern foot of the Indigo Mountain below a "trig" called Mount Poole in the mining district of Eden. There are several claimants to the first gold discovery: Mr. N. Jansen is said to have been the first to hoist the red flag but Messers Burns and Smith are said to have been the first persons to register a claim on November 6th, 1899. Over forty years ago however, the Reverend W. B. Clark located gold almost on the very place the first recent discovery was made and just on the Victorian and New south Wales border not more than ten miles from the present location. Miners have been mining quantities of gold for years past. The whole of the country has been occupied as pastoral holdings and although gold was known to exist there it was not until the past two years that any attempt was made to prospect. The writer made his way to the field from Wyndham crossing the western flank of the Jingera rangers in the vicinity of Towamba and Pericoe where they branched and forked with the rest of the mountains. Apparently the gold bearing belt extends from Jingera southwards to and across the Victorian border and as little attention has been paid to the country there is ample scope for a well organized system of prospecting.
Referring again to the reefs or lodes of Yambulla the writer may mention that extraordinary stories have been circulated about the discovery of immense reefs studded with gold outcropping far above the surface. Although diligent search was made I failed to find the alleged discovery. The Yambulla Mining Company, some blocks worked by Mr. C. W. Richards on behalf of some Sydney gentlemen, about a mile east of the former property, the one worked by Mr. Haugh and others in the vicinity, might be mentioned as showing very fine surface prospects. The Yambulla Mining Company have at gross over 100 tons of ore which should give very profitable results. The shaft at the time of my visit was down some 16 feet but in addition to this a deal of ore has been mined along the western end from the shafts near the surface. The position of the field maybe shortly sized up so far as gold bearing locations are concerned there are many and as I before said, surface ores carry good gold values and is only a question as to whether these gold values carry down into the mineralised zones. If this be proved universal then there is a good future before the new Yambulla field. There is plenty of room and scope for mining skills on the field. Persons going there during the present winter months require to be equipped with plenty of warm clothing and blankets also strong watertight boots. Provisions can be obtained at a reasonable price and there is plenty of water and grass for horses. Timber and bark for building purposes are both plentiful. Excessively cold weather is the principal thing miners will need to provide for. Stores and a butcher and baker shop are already on the ground. In fact a small mining village is now in course of formation. Postal communication has already been established and also a newsagency.

'Pambula Voice' August 3, 1900
YAMBULLA GOLD FIELD
Mining matters are rather quiet in this locality but some of the leases at Yambulla are said to be developing well. A sensational find is reported on Alex Greig's lease, the ore being described as being studded with gold. No further new leases have been applied for since your last issue. However, more miners are constantly arriving. Mr. T. Hite has opened a store at the gold field and it is rumoured that Mr. J. M. Ryan has sold his store business to Mr. A. J. Ward formerly of Pipe Clay Creek.
The weather has been very wintery of late with frequent frosts.

'Pambula Voice' August 17, 1900
NOTES FROM YAMBULLA
Rifle shooting is becoming very popular, too popular in fact. Many of our shooters appear to be constantly practicing for forthcoming matches and the crack of the rifle is heard both day and night, so that one might almost imagine that they were in the vicinity of the South African town from which our township "Ladysmith" derives it's name. Any convenient tree is made a target so that the bush wayfarer has the monotony of his journey relieved by the probability of being require at any moment to stop a stray bullet. The dodging of which becomes quite an exhilarating and exciting pastime.
* A meeting of the Rifle Club Committee was held at Earl & Company's office on Tuesday night when it was proposed to celebrate the Prince of Wales's birthday by holding a 10 handicap rifle match. The club possesses a good working committee and an energetic secretary so that a good meeting is anticipated. Some of our crack's propose crossing the border on the 26th instant to try their luck at Wangrabelle, Victoria.
* There are still about a dozen men working for alluvial gold on the river. Some of them, however, are hampered for want of water. Ryan and Loch have expended a lot of time doing dead work. The former has a race cut over half a mile long and now expects to continue sluicing until Christmas.
* A parcel of 5 ton sent by Heartneady and partner to Dapto yielded 2 ounces 18 dwts per ton.

'Pambula Voice' September 28, 1900
PERICOE
Mr. Haugh's new battery at Yambulla was opened on the 11th instant.

'Australian Town and Country Journal'
13 October 1900

Hartneady and party, of Towamba, recently had 5 tons of ore treated at Dapto for a return of 2oz 18dwt gold. Haugh's Federal battery cleaned up last week a crushing of about 100 tons of stone for a return of 175oz of gold over the plates. About 3 per cent. of rich concentrates were also saved, which, with the tailings, will about double the returns.

'Pambula Voice' November 2, 1900
NOTES FROM YAMBULLA
*At the monthly meeting of the Yambulla Progress Committee held on Saturday night last, it was decided to make application for a telephone and an accelerated mail service. The committee also decided to follow the good example shown by the Pambula committee and form themselves into a working bee with the purpose of clearing the streets of the township, the first meeting of which is taking place next Saturday afternoon.
* An accident happened to a man named McGrath whilst working in a shaft, a quantity of stone falling on him severely bruising his shoulder and arms. He left here by coach to obtain medical treatment. The extent of this injuries has not yet been ascertained.

TED LOVE'S HORSE TEAM OUTSIDE
EDEN POST
OFFICE EN ROUTE TO
YAMBULLA GOLDFIELDS.

No date. Photo courtesy C. and G. Clements

'Pambula Voice' November 30, 1900
* The Yambulla GM Company are calling for tenders for the carriage of their machinery from Eden so that it is probable this property will shortly be profitably developed. The four men who have been working upon it for some time past are now engaged making a road to the mine.
* A narrow escape from a fearful accident occurred here on Saturday. Two men employed in making the road to Yambulla Company's mine, named McCarthy and Moffitt, had put in a charge of dynamite which it appears only partially exploded blowing the "tamping" out of the hole. Not thinking that any of the charge remained, the men proceeded to drill the hole to a greater depth when the charge suddenly exploded blowing the men a distance of some fifteen yards from the spot. They were both much bruised and cut but were not so seriously hurt as might have been expected. Their escape is considered almost miraculous.
* The Progress Committee held their usual fortnightly meeting on Saturday night last but no new business of importance was bought forward. Considerable indignation was however expressed at the delay at getting the Towamba-Yambulla road attended to and the secretary was instructed to again write to their member for the district to urge upon him the necessity for trying to expedite matters.

'Pambula Voice' December 7, 1900
NOTES FROM YAMBULLA
* Magnificent stone was raised last week from Haugh's 10 acre lease at the depth of 85ft. The specimens obtained being the richest seen on the field. Next crushing to go through will probably be from this property.
* A terrific thunder storm passed over here on Friday afternoon last. The rain which was preceded by vivid flashes of lightning and tremendous peals of thunder. It was the heaviest ever witnessed here. The weather still continues showery and unsettled.
* Roberts and party are sinking a new vertical shaft which they expect will cut the reef at about 50ft. Shares in this property are reported to have recently changed hands at a satisfactory figure.
* Mr. Surveyor Small is camped here now and is engaged in measuring some of the leases. It is hoped that he may also be instructed to layout the township whilst here. Where is the township site to be? This is now becoming a somewhat vexed question. The residents of "Ladysmith" with considerable amount of reason and justice on their side take it as a matter of course that - as they first located themselves on what appears to be the best building sites on the field and had a main street and several allotments surveyed where most of the business places of importance are situated,- the township must be there and nowhere else. They must not overlook the fact, however, that the 'Spion Kop' is fast becoming a formidable-like rivalry; rapidly increasing population is centering in that locality including one or two residents as of much push and energy who are already putting forward their claims for recognition and although at present there seems but little doubt as to the result it is anticipated that a battle royal will result before matter is settled.

'Evening News'
6 December 1900
THE YAMBULLA FIELD

YAMBULLA, Wednesday.- A township is rapidly springing up here, and many new buildings continue to be erected. Indignation is expressed at the delay in having the road made between here and Towamba. Up to the present nothing has been expended on it except by private individuals, and now owing to the large amount of heavy traffic upon it, and the swampy nature of the soil, it is almost impossible to travel over it.

'Evening News'
21 December 1900

YAMBULLA, Thursday. - A parcel of 56 tons was cleaned up at the Haugh's Federal battery last week, on account of the Sydney syndicate. The exact returns were not made public. It is, known, however, that 2 tons of rich concentrates were saved, and judging from the appearance of the plates, the yield of free gold should have been nearly loz per ton. The battery is now running upon a quantity of stone from Mr. Haugh's property, and it is not expected that another clean up will be made until a day or two before Christmas. Mr. Surveyor Small is at present camped here, measuring leases and township allotments. About 70 leases have been measured so far. At the Warden's Court, Towamba, Mr. M'Kenzie, manager for the Sydney syndicate, obtained a three months' suspension of labor upon the syndicate's property. The application of the Yambulla G.M. Company for a partial suspension of labor for six months upon their property pending the erection of machinery was adjourned for a month. This company's machinery is now on the road to the mine. An effort is being made to have the warden's office removed from Towamba to Yambulla, it being considered an unnecessary tax on miners and others to have to travel this distance to transact their business, particularly as the whole of the business done at the warden's office, Towamba, is derived from Yambulla. A new reef has been struck on Greig and party's claim, the stone taken from it being exceptionally rich.

Delegate Argus and Border Post
29 December 1900
The Yambulla Gold.
FROM A PROSPECTOR'S POINT OF VIEW.

(By A Contributor).
The Yambulla goldfield is situated about 16 miles S. E. of Towamba the nearest post town. Ladysmith is the name of the township on Yambulla. The town- ship consists of three stores, a post office, butcher's and baker's' shop, a news and mining agency, and a bootmaker's shop; so that the residents are well provided for. The population varies from 150 to 200.
The principal mines are situated on Spion-Kop,and Indigo Mt. Mr. Haugh's claim at Spion-Kop is down 100 feet and the crushing, up to November last was 200 tons for a yield of 270 ozs of free gold, the mineral (or concentrates) assaying as high as 80 oz to the ton and the tailings from 18dwt to loz. Other claims have crushed as high as 9 oz 5dwt to the ton, but smaller veins than Haugh's. The reefs at Spion-Kop range from a few inches to 7 feet and average, up to date, 2oz to the ton. The formation of the country is supposed to be granite, but I very much doubt it. The reefs are running in all directions, from N. and S. to E. and W., and consist of ferruginous quartz with iron and arsenical pyrites and galena making into the stone as it goes down. No doubt it is the galena that shows the presence of silver and reduces the gold below the standard price, the gold fetching 3.5s per ounce at Sydney mint. Solomon's claim is situated at Indigo Mt., one mile S-E, from Spion Kop, but they have had no crushings yet, as they are erecting battery. Going from the field S. E. for about 4 miles you come to what is known as Duffy's claim, which was taken up and abandoned some time ago, as it only crashed 17 dwts. Daffy and Falkner then put her down 30 feet, and drove on the reef, and put a 30 ton crushing through, for a yield of 5 oz to the ton. The formation of this belt is identical with Spion Kop. The next auriferous belt is Bridle and party's, a distance of 4 miles S. E. from Duffy's, coming towards the Victorian border. The reefs at this end of the field differ considerably from those at Spion Kop, and, in my opinion, I think for the better, as the reefs are only running in one direction, are more defined, and longer shoots. I saw gold myself for a distance of 900 feet along the line of reef on this claim. There are five reefs on this block carrying gold. The deepest workings are about 35 feet, and the stone about lft 6in ,showing nice gold in the bottom. The prospects I tried from the reefs on this claim went from oz up to 2 oz , independent of the mineral, which I could only treat in a crude manner. There are two more claims on this belt, one on each end of Bridle's, with the reefs cropping and showing nice gold, proving the belt to be the longest yet opened up. There have been no crushings from here, on account of the long distance from a battery but I think a battery will soon make its, appearance now, as other shows are being opened up, one belonging to Mr. Raine, of Bonang, and another to Mr. R. Marriott's. What is known as Raine's reef is about 1 mile S.E. from Bridle's, and having only just been found, is down no depth; but, judging by the number of little quartz paddocks, I should think it is a fairly long shoot. From Raine's you come to R. Marriott's, the last belt opened up, and about one mile from Raine's reef. Marriott's reefs are about the same as Bridle's, the reefs averaging from 1ft up to 3 or 4ft, and, according to surface workings, pretty long shoots. Mr. Marriott being well versed in treating minerals, he has been able to get some nice little buttons of gold from his 10 acre lease. The only thing wanted to push this end of the field ahead now is a battery, as both Bridle and party and Raine and party are going to start getting out stone at once. Speaking of the field in general, I must say it has the brightest prospects of any field opened on the South Coast. Many people are prejudiced against a granite formation, but for what reason I don't know, as there are various goldfields in Australia with this so-called granite formation turning out good yields. Others, again, reckon the reefs will not go down, so far they have been proved to a depth of 100 feet, and still going down as good as ever. As regards water and timber, I doubt if there is any field can beat it. It is only about 40 miles from the port of Eden, and from there right to the Victorian border machinery of any sort or size could be carted with ease. I have spent six or seven weeks on the Yambulla goldfield prospecting different reefs, to satisfy myself if they were worth going to more trouble' with, so that I am not judging Yambulla from a hurried trip to one claim and back the next day, but I have gone over the whole field, and have come to the conclusion that Yambulla will come to the front - steady and sure, not by a boom, but by its gold returns. Being asked by so many what I thought of Yambulla, I thought it best to put what I saw and what I think in the "Delegate Argus."

'Pambula Voice' January 18, 1901
Yambulla
* Mr. D. S. McDonald has made a start with his new hotel, the site being cleared and fenced. Building operations have somewhat been delayed owing to the difficulty of getting material delivered on the ground. Mr. McDonald states that satisfactory arrangements have now been made with Mr. D. Heffernan of Bondi sawmills and the timber is expected to arrive here this week. He expects to have the building completed in eight weeks time.
* "Cleanliness is next to godliness". This fact is evident recognised by the good folk of Yambulla, by at all events the male portion of them, who unable to show their godliness by going to church on Sunday, do what they deem the next best thing, mainly their weeks' washing shown by the quantity of clothes hanging out to dry each Sunday.

'Pambula Voice' February 1, 1901
NOTES FROM YAMBULLA
* The secretary of the Progress Committee has been informed through the Member for the district Mr. W. Wood that the sum of 80 has been granted toward the much needed improvement of the Towamba-Yambulla road to be expended on the Yambulla end.

'Pambula Voice' February 1, 1901
NOTES FROM YAMBULLA
Periods of depression are common on almost every gold field. We are passing through one such period just now. That we will pass through it and that it is only temporary may be considered certain as knowing that gold exists here in payable quantities. It is not probable that it will be allowed to remain for long. Yambulla has from the outset laboured under exceptional disadvantages. In the first place it had to contend with the strong prejudice that exists in the minds of mining investors against south coast gold fields generally. Holdings are also, for the most part, too small and are held by men with neither the means, ability or inclination to properly develop them and it is evident that to work the field profitably a number of these will have to be amalgamated and worked by one company. In the meantime numbers of men who have come here seeking employment have had to leave again disappointed. As with a few exceptions none of the claims are being legitimately worked but are merely being "shepherded" pending the arrival of the capitalist who still holds aloof.

Tom Hite with wife and family at
McDonald's battery. Yambulla. 1907
Children from L - R: Jack, Tom, Harry and Vera.
Photo courtesy Eden Killer Whale Museum

'Pambula Voice' February 22, 1901
NOTES FROM YAMBULLA
The Progress Association met as usual Saturday night last. It was a fair muster of members with Mr. J. Stott occupying the chair. A letter was read from Mr. P. Durie, Inspector of Schools notifying his intention of visiting the township on Wednesday the 20th instant and expressing a wish to confer with the residents on the subject of the establishment of a public school here and the secretary was instructed to notify all parents to meet at his rooms at 2pm on a day named to confer with Mr. Durie. A report was also laid before the committee that notwithstanding the caution given by the police, washing was being carried on to the banks of the creek by certain residents and that soap suds, dye and other filth was observed running into the water and also that dirty socks were seen floating about in the stream. As this state of things was considered not conducive to public health and did not tend in any way to improve the flavour or the purity of the drinking water, the secretary was instructed to again write to the police urging them to take the necessary steps to put a stop to the nuisance.
To one who has been in the midst of a typhoid epidemic and witnessed the fearful ravages caused by that dreadful disease. It seems extraordinary that people can be so criminally careless. It may be possible that some people are foolish and callous enough to imagine that because they are not obliged to drink the filth which they allow to stream into the drinking, water they do not run any danger themselves. Should typhoid, however, make its appearance it will be found that it makes no distinctions in this or any other respect and that it usually travels from from house to house with lightning rapidity paying its visits impartially. We are at present blessed with that priceless boon denied to most gold fields vis a stream of beautiful clear water and it is sincerely to be hoped that the efforts of the Progress Association to keep it pure will be successful
.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
20 February 1901

EDEN-MONARO.
TOWAMBA
, Tuesday.
Mr. Austin Chapman, federal candidate, addressed a large meeting here last night. Two hundred miners were amongst those present, and the candidate was warmly welcomed. Mr. Earl presided, and a vote of confidence was carried.

'Evening News'
1901
VOTING DIFFICULTIES

YAMBULLA
, Friday. - Some twenty or thirty electors will be disfranchised here in the election. Through their names not being on the roll they had to make application to the district registrar for enrolment. Forms were sent for the purpose, to which an affidavit is appended, requiring the signature of a magistrate, and, as none of the newly-appointed Js.P. here have yet been sworn in, there was none nearer than Burragate or Eden. The privilege of the franchise is dear to any man, but it becomes too dear to a poor man when he has to neglect his work, and travel thirty or forty miles to obtain his right. The presiding officers and poll clerks are also required to make a sworn declaration prior to the polling; consequently, tbe officers from Yambulla, Pericoe and Towamba will be compelled to take a trip to Burragate or Eden for that purpose, presumably at the country's expense. In this connection it is noted that Ladysmith has been gazetted a polling place.

PAMBULA, Friday
'The Sydney Morning Herald', Saturday 4 May, 1901

* The Warden's office at Towamba is being removed to Yambulla goldfields.

Wednesday 5 June 1901
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
YAMBULLA GOLD YIELDS.
TOWAMBA.

The latest crushing on the Yambulla goldfield are :-Duffy and Falkner, 6 tons for 12oz. 10dwr.,
Federal battery; Jansen's tributers, 10 tons 30oz.,and W, Burton, 20 tons for 10oz., at Gough's battery. Janson's tributers have 10 tons of similar ore lying at Jansen's battery waiting to be crushed as soon as there is sufficient water in the creek. Burton's crushing was taken from a 12ft. reef, and there are about 80 tons of similar ore at grass, Gough's battery is now putting through 40 tons for Lindwall and party. Haugh's tributers and Delaney and party have parcels lying at the Federal battery awaiting treatment.

'The Sydney Morning Herald', Wednesday 12 June, 1901
YAMBULLA GOLD YIELDS.
YAMBULLA

* The repairs to the Yambulla Company's battery have been implemented, and crushing is to be resumed this week. The federal battery is crushing from the new find at Squirrel Hat.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
15 June 1901
TOWAMBA
, Friday
Mr. Coulson Murphy, Mayor of Bombala and a candidate for the electorate, addressed a large meeting at Yambulla on Wednesday night, and was well received. Mr. Murphy advocated reform in land and mining laws, a reduction of members, an elective Upper House, a compulsory court of arbitration, and female suffrage if demanded. At the close of the meeting a unanimous vote of confidence was given.

'Evening News'
4 June 1901
YAMBULLA
.
A warden's office has now been established on the field, the warden's clerk from Towamba now being located here. The want of telegraphic communication is much felt, and general dissatisfaction is felt at the refusal of the Government to connect this place with Towamba by telephone. A money order office is also badly needed.

September 27, 1901
'Bombala Times and Manaro and Coast Districts General Advertiser'
Yambulla Goldfield.

(From our own Correspondent)
All the batteries have been kept pretty well going since the late rains. The Yambulla Coy; sent away nearly 300 ozs. the result of last month's run with their battery, by escort. McCloy and Jervis crushed: 40 tons for 45 ozs. and Roberts and Party 16 tons for 43 ozs, at the Federal battery. Copeland and Dynes, contributors on Jansen's claim, crushed 18 tons for 54 ozs, and McLaren and Power 15 tons for 22 ozs at Gough's. A. G. Robinson crushed 10 tons at Jansen's for a trifle over l oz per ton. It is probable that the mills will be kept going up till Christmas time as there are several part ies waiting their turns at the different batteries. A sensational crushing is expected from Delaney and Party's claim at Squirrel Flat some 6 miles from here. They are carting about 100 or 120 tons to Haugh's battery and will probably start crushing in a few days' time.
A Warden's Court is held here regularly each month, but so far the only business has been the granting of a few applications for suspension of labor. A public school is now opened here under the charge of Mr. Smith, from Tombong. Several Sydney spectators have recently visited the field, although no business seems to have resulted so far. The Progress Committee is making strenuous efforts to obtain telephonic communication between here and Towamba and with Mr. Chapman's assistance it seems probable that this much needed boon will be obtained before long.
The co operation of this Association has been promised to the Towamba Progress Committee in the matter of endeavouring to obtain the construction of a bridge across the Towamba River at Towamba. In July last, Mr. Stuart, Inspecting Engineer of the N. S. W. Railway Dept., inspected suggested routes for proposed line of railway to connect Twofold Bay with Southern Monaro, namely by way of Bondi and Perico, and also by way of Mount Imlay and the Timbillica River. Prior to his departure for Sydney Mr. Stuart thanked the committee for their assistance and intimated that he would perhaps recommend surveys of the two suggested routes.

May 17, 1902
'The Worker '

* The Yambulla Goldfield, Bombala, seems to be nearly played out, and the miners are fast leaving the field. A steady stream of diggers has been passing through Towamba from Yambulla during the last few weeks in search of another home, and there are now not more than 80 men on the field.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
15 July 1902
YAMBULLA,

Last week the rainfall was 1380 points. All the mine workings are full of water. Wednesday's mail reached Yambulla on Saturday night by pack horse which had to swim the Towamba River and Faulkner's Creek. The mail was then taken by boat to Towamba. The roads are impassable for wheel traffic.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
7 August 1902

* The name of Yambulla is being substituted for Towamba mining division owing to frequent misunderstandings caused by adherence to the latter name.

'Pambula Voice'
September 26, 1902

* Mr. Peter Martin a miner well-known in connection with the Pambula gold fields is about to try his fortune at Yambulla.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
22 December 1902
TOWAMBA,
The Yambulla mail coach from Eden on Wednesday was carried off the crossing at Nullica Creek. A quantity of provisions was lost. The mails were saved with difficulty. The Towamba River was not crossable yesterday.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
18 June 1903
DEVELOPMENTS AT SQUIRREL FLAT.
TOWAMBA
,
* Two leases have been applied for at Squirrel Flat each of six acres. The Squirrel Flat claim is looking splendid. If the land were resumed there would be many prospects and probably many reefs found. Lodes there are all large. A rich leader running north has been cut on the footwall of Haugh's 10 acres. McCloy crushed 10 tons at the Federal battery for a yield of 10oz.; Faucett crushed six tons for 11oz. Charles McKenzie, tributor of the Duchess of York, had 28 tons trusted at Gough's battery for a yield of 80oz.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
1 July 1903
YAMBULLA YIELDS.
Pite's Find, three chains west of Maradian's (Yambulla Company's old ground) has opened to a width of 6ft., and is prospecting well. Maradian is starting to crush 70 tons at the Federal battery.
Fawcett has treated 10 tons for a yield of 17 oz.; Quigly 15 tons from Jansen's prospecting claim for 30 oz.: Tighe and Mc'Carthy from Greenless's, 5 tons for 10 oz. -
Charles M'Kenzie continues to raise splendid stone from the large reef of the Duchess of York. Splendid stone has been struck on the British Lion reef. The stone is 6ft. wide.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
14 December 1903
OPERATIONS AT TOWAMBA.

* Miradian and Pola at Yambulla mine had 110 tons of stone treated at Haugh's battery for a yield of 164oz by amalgamation; two tons of concentrates assayed 20 oz and 80 tons of tailings 40 oz ; total, 224 oz of gold. Mr. Corder put 45 tons of stone through Gough's mill for 7 oz 14dwt, and Robert M'Kenzie and party at Granite Boulder treated 7 tons at Haugh's water wheel plant for a yield of 1oz. 14dwt per ton. All the batteries are now hard at work.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
15 February 1904
DEVELOPMENTS AT TOWAMBA
.
* The first crushings of the year took place at Haugh's Federal battery this week, when Wiseman and party had l8 tons treated for a return of 17dwt per ton. A party of miners have taken up the Razorback prospecting claim and Best's lease. They are now raising stone from both places.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
24 December 1904
LATE MINING.
TOWAMBA
* The latest crushings from Yambulla are as follows:- Quigg and party, 9 tons from gold lease 6 for 17oz 15dwt; Corder, 3 tons for 3oz; Tighe and M'Grath, 9 tons for 19 oz l6dwt; Armstrong and party, 4 tons for 4oz dwt; M'Kenzie, tributer, Duchess of York, 16 tons for 26oz. Hocking and party have discovered two reefs half a mile north of Spion Kop, and a working trial of 15 tons yielded 27dwt per ton. This mine is of more than usual importance as it is outside the auriferous zone.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
31 January 1906
MINING IN THE STATE.
TOWAMBA. Tuesday
.
* The stone raised in the Yambulla mine during last year amounted to 1311 tons, and with the exception of a few tons sent to Cockle Creek it was all treated locally, producing 1787 oz 13dwt gold, averaging about 27dwt per ton, and realised 5361, averaging about 3 per ounce. This includes the gold extracted from the tailings caught on Haugh's Table, and treated at Cockle Creek. The batteries are all idle at present.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
13 June 1906
MINING LAND LOCKED UP.
APPEAL TO THE MINES DEPARTMENT.

TOWAMBA, Tuesday.
* The progress association has asked the Department of Mines to cancel all leases not being worked by the owners, and that no more leases be granted in the parish of Yambulla. Many men are leaving the field owing to the ground being locked up. Men are allowed to prospect where they please, but if they find anything any good they are quickly ejected by the leaseholders. The lodes generally are small and patchy, but if opened up for ordinary claims there is room for a large number of men. A good portion of the stone raised is now being sent to Cockle Creek.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
July 11, 1906
THE TOWAMBA FIELD.

* A trial crushing from Holsen's find, on Mount Poole, yielded 26dwt per ton. The shaft is 30ft deep.
Mr. T. Hite, jun., has taken the Squirrel Flat mine on tribute. A five-ton lot put through Hough's battery returned 14dwt per ton. Lagan and Pola, at the Yambulla mine, have purchased Gough's battery, and are preparing to treat a large quantity of ore. They are at present stoping a reef 16ft wide. The field at present is rather dull.

'The Bega Budget'
July 14, 1906

* It is rumored that Messrs. Meradian and Pola, of Yambulla, have purchased Gough's battery. With such a splendid reef they should have no difficulty in keeping the stampers continually on the move.

August 18, 1906
'The Bega Budget'

The telephone line from Towamba to Yambulla was opened on Friday of last week. The Hon. Austin Chapman, Postmaster General sent the first message - one of congratulation, Mrs. Alexander being the recipient. This lady was the prime mover in the agitation for the construction of the line, in fact, it is doubtful if the work would ever have been carried out had it not been for the persistence and tact of Mrs. Alexander. At the Pericoe post office there was a little function. Mrs. Alexander proposed the health of the P.M.G. (Mr. Austin Chapman), and Mr. J. M. Ryan proposed 'The Contractor.' The work was carried out under the superintendence of Mr. Till man. 'The Budget' congratulates the people of Towamba and Yambulla on the completion of so necessary a convenience.

November 13, 1906
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
EDEN-MONARO.
YAMBULLA
* Mr. Austin Chapman, Postmaster-General, addressed a large gathering of ladles and gentlemen in the School of Arts on Saturday night. He gave a resume of the work of the last Parliament, outlined his future policy, and declared that Monaro could only be deprived of the Federal Capital over his political corpse. Mr. Chapman received a unanimous vote of confidence. He was afterwards entertained at the Federal Hotel by about 30 gentlemen, including visitors from Bombala, Wongrabelle, Towamba and Pericoe. The Wongrabelle contingent strongly urged the necessity of extending telephone communication to that centre.


'The Sydney Morning Herald'
7 December, 1906
YAMBULLA GOLD LEASES.
YAMBULLA, Thursday.
* At one of the largest meetings ever held at Yambulla resolutions were carried emphatically protesting against any suspension being granted on gold leases 8 and 3.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
25 February 1908

THE YAMBULLA FIELD.

* Durkin and Biddulph, who are trying a reef in Dickey's paddock, Towamba, are highly pleased with their show. The shaft is down 40ft, and carrying gold all the way.
* Some nine tons of ore are being despatched from the Wongrabelle gold and silver mine to Cockle Crook. The manager reports that the mine is looking exceedingly well.
* Bormann and party, tunnelling at Mount Buckle, have cut several loaders carrying a little gold, but nothing of a payable nature has so far been met with.
* The reef found on No.6 by Howitt and Lewis is looking well, and a fair quantity of stone is being raised.

Eden Observer & South Coast Advocate
April 4, 1908
ADVERTISEMENT

YAMBULLA
J. MIRADIAN, STOREKEEPER
Drapery, Clothing, Groceries, etc.,
First Class Hairdresser
Good Billiard Table

Tuesday 8 June, 1909
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
YAMBULLA GOLD MINES.
INTERESTING DEVELOPMENTS
Nestled in the extreme south-eastern corner of the Monaro tableland nearly 300.tr above sea level is the small mining township of Yambulla. Snugly lying in a valley, surrounded by hills (the highest being Mount Poole) all densely covered with timber, the town is romantically situated. It is tlIsL.nl. 10 miles inland from Eden by about the same distance from Bombala and is within nine miles of the Victorian border.
At a height of 700f above the town, on the side of a hill reached by a well graded road, is the Yambulla mine. It is on this claim that the sole topic of conversation the township is centered. The property is mostly owned by Messrs Miradian and Pola, has recently been sold by them to a Sydney syndicate with a capital of 10,000
This field is situated in ideal country for mining purposes and is quite distinct from what is known as "The South Coast Belt" the elevation of the former being some 2500ft higher than that of its neighbour.
The lode is in granite country, between well-defined hanging and hanging and foot walls and was first discovered in 1898 by Mr Andy Brown, who sold it two years later to Mr. S. Solomon, of Eden for 1200. Mr Solomon formed a syndicate which erected a 10-stamp battery. Some 4000 tons of material were treated, and are said to have averaged 8dwt per ton. For some reason or other the mine suddenly ceased working, the mill was dismounted and taken to Eden where it was sold. The cancelled leases for non work were then taken up by Messrs Miradian and Pola. They soon learnt that only a small very small portion of the lode had been taken, for prospecting a large vein on the hanging wall showed a yield up to 15dwt per ton. The stone left on the surface by the former owner yielded over half an ounce and the mullock tip crushed 8 dwt, with per cent of concentrates worth 6 oz per ton.
OPERATING A BIG LODE
When they unwatered the deep shaft 200ft a level driven east 14 ft was found. Cross-cutting from this level, it was discovered that the lode was almost 16ft wide and crushed over an ounce per ton. All this stone was being treated at Haugh and McDonald's battery but as this necessitated three miles of carting Messrs Miradian and Pola purchased the "Goughs's" battery situated half a mile from the mine. This was a 10-stamp mill, to which a 'card ' concentrating table was added by the owners A tramline was shortly afterwards laid down from the mine to the mill, as carting the stone by horses and drays was considered too expensive. Stoping was proceeded with, and a mineral vein was found running parallel with the roof. This vein at times bulged to a foot. The material was all sent to Cockle Creek, and gave 12 oz to the ton. .
The depth of the main shaft was next increased to 245ft, and a level driven on the lode for a length of 150ft, the stone averaging 16ft in width at the bottom level.
Stoping is now being proceeded with from this level. The lode, still continuing at both ends, is very strong and solid underfoot, thus indicating permanency - the average assay value is 15dwt of gold per ton. The material is readily amenable to battery and cyanide treatment. Several thousand pounds profit can be counted on out of the blocked-out bodies of ore already exposed and sampled.
ADDITIONS TO PLANT.
The company has purchased a first class 10 head mill, pending the erection of which they are putting the old "rattle-trap" 10-head mill, used by the previous owners, in repair, to crush the ore at grass, and the ore won from further development work. Preparations have also been made for a winning plant, the hauling hitherto having been done by whip and whim.
There is no lack of water at the present time, and in order to allay all fears of the likelihood of a water question cropping up in the future, the company has already commenced erecting a largo concrete embankment between the gorges of the Yambulla Creek, which will ensure a sufficient supply for all time.
To Mr. Tom Croft - a man of sound mine managing capabilities, and one of the discoverers of the Tomingley Goldfield, near Peak Hill, in the Dubbo district - has been given the managership of the mine. It is quite on the cards that the direct result of a successful management by the now company will reflect in no small way on the Yambul1a township, and very probably to the extent that the town will shortly become a busy mining centre, and compare favourably with the speedy growth of the township of Canbelego when Mount Boppy broke out. The growth of this town, it will be remembered, in a very small space of time was remarkable, and almost unprecedented in the annals of mining. Everything points in favour of the Yambulla mine turning out one of the best paying propositions in the State, and the growth of the town will be watched with interest.

July 1, 1909
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
YAMBULLA
To show the absolute necessity that exists for a constable to be stationed here an incident occurred two nights ago, when police assistance had to be summoned by telephone from Towamba, a distance of 15 miles. To-day the parties have gone to Wyndham, under police escort. Wyndham is the nearest court of petty sessions. It is a distant 32 miles from Yambulla.


July 6, 1909
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
* Yambulla is completely isolated owing to the floods of the Towamba River, and no mails have reached there since June 10.

July 6, 1909
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
FLOOD AT YAMBULLA.
FIELD COMPLETELY ISOLATED.
Yambulla is completely isolated owing to the flooded state of Towamba River. No mails have reached here since June 30. Foodstuffs are becoming scarce, and machinery for the mines cannot cross. After many requests, petitions, and deputations, Parliament voted 3000 to place a bridge over the Towamba River, and 450 for the Towamba-Yambulla road. The Imlay Shire Council practically decline to carry out the work. As these interruptions have occurred periodically over since the opening of the field, it is considered here that the Government should take the matter out of the hands of the shire and proceed with the work at once. As the rain still continues, it is doubtful when communication will be restored. Should an accident happen, or illness occur, there is no, possibility of getting medical aid.

July 8, 1909
'Singleton Argus'
* Yambulla is completely isolated owing to the flooded state o Towamba River. No mails have reached there since June 30. Foodstuffs are becoming scarce, and machinery for the mines cannot cross.

December 29, 1909
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
DESTRUCTIVE BUSH FIRES.
CROPS AND FENCES CONSUMED
.
YAMBULLA
* An extensive fire has raged hero for a week. From the Fingerpost on the Yambulla side of Pericoe to Towamba, the country has been swept, although no dwellings have been destroyed. The farmers lost all their crops and fences. Messrs. Watson and Johnston were very heavy losers, and Mr. T. Love, besides fences, yards, and, outhouses, lost 100 tons of wattle bark. Indeed, at one time so dense was the smoke and fearsome the outlook that everything was abandoned, and families were gathered together preparatory to fleeing for their lives. Fortunately a thunderstorm passed over, and 68 points of rain fell in a few minutes. It saved the situation. About a mile of the supports of the Yambulla - Pericoe line were destroyed.

February 16, 1910
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
YAMBULLA
The contractor for the erection of a bridge over the Towamba River, at Towamba, has arrived, and the work is now in full progress. Agitation has been going on for this bridge for something like 22 years. It was was very much needed, as often the Yambulla and district mails were delayed, there being no means of crossing the river when in flood.

'The Sydney Morning Herald'
6 October 1910
MINING IN THE STATE
TOWAMBA, Wednesday.
* A discovery of a rather important nature has been made by S. Smith, junior, on the So-Long Tried field, south of the Yambulla Mines. This part of the field has been tabooed by miners for many years. Smith at a depth of 20ft has cut a reef over 12 1n. wide, showing gold freely.
Pola and party are having a trial crushing from the Victoria Springs mine put through Haughs and M'Donald's battery. Sulphide ore is being broken in the Duchess of York mine just now, and the stopes generally are looking well.

'Southern Star'
March 8, 1911
From Our Correspondent.
PAMBULA.
Buried at Towamba on Sunday, Yambulla lost its most prominent citizen in Mr. Joseph Miradian, mine owner and storekeeper. The deceased gentleman passed away on Friday, having been laid up for ten days from a paralytic stroke, when everyone expected from the recovery he was making that he had every chance of being himself again. But Fate ordained otherwise, and within a day of reaching 41 years be expired, being unable to speak for some hours. Deceased was an Armenian, and spent some years at Captain's Flat. A few years ago he and his partner (Mr. M. Pola) revived the Yambulla field by backing the abandoned Brown Solomon mine, which they sold to the Yambulla Gold Mine Co., which went into liquidation very shortly afterwards. Although at the present time it is the most promising and best equipped mining show 0n the South Coast, the original holders hold no interest whatever. The mine is at present owned by Mr. Pedley, and is in the capable hands of Mr. E. W. Finch, the manager, and without doubt it is the best-equipped, handiest labor saving, and economic mine and works in the State. The shaft underlays to the north. The poppet heads, 60ft high, are situated west to get the grade for hauling ore and bailing water by automatic skips. Then come the 170 h.p. boiler, 10 head battery (stamps 11oolbs each), with dynamo, Grisly rock-breaker, leaders, boxes, copper tables (4ft from the ground), card and wilfley tables, sand and tailings reservoir, six cyanide vats (25 tons each), all worked by gravitation. Not an ounce of strength is used, with the exception of filling the sand skips. All is lighted by electricity. Further up the hill are three large tanks for holding water pumped up from the dam. About 1ooo tons of ore per month will be treated. Outside this mine, the Duchess and Duchess Extended are just about making ends meet. Haugh and McDonald's battery for Squirrel Flat is still on the way.


'Pambula Voice' August 4, 1911
Mr. John Hartneady has opened a branch store at Yambulla, and is, we are informed, doing good business. So, you see, our Towamba tradesmen have some push in them.

April 1, 1912
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
EXTRAORDINARY HEAVY RAIN
YAMBULLA
* The most terrible thunderstorm that has been experienced in the district occurred on Thursday night. Five inches of rain fell here in a very short time, 7 inches at Pericoe and 15 inches at Towamba. A number of culverts have been washed away. The telephone lines have been interrupted. Mails are over-due and it is still raining.


November 19, 1912
'The Sydney Morning Herald'
THE YAMBULLA GOLD MINE.
* The manager of the Yambulla gold mine, Mr. W. W. Grainger, reports the following work for the month of October - Cleaned up crushing No 14 on October 31: Tons crushed 400, hours run 373, bullion recovered 235oz 15dwt, average per ton, 11dwt 19gr, total costs per ton 23/-.
Mr E W Finch acting for the owner, who is in England, recently paid a visit of inspection to the mine, and left instructions that on the conclusion of crushing No 15 all hands be paid off and the mine closed down pending negotiations for raising more capital to further develop the property.


November 20, 1913
'The Australian Worker'

* The whole of the plant and machinery at the Yambulla mines has been purchased by a Bendigo syndicate who, it is said, will erect it at Pipeclay Creek. Pambula. . . . Bridle and Allan are driving on good ore in their molybdenite show at Wangrabelle. . . . The Towamba prospectors are following a small vein in soft rock which is turning in very good gold assays. . . . Rich gold specimens has been shown by Brown Bros., obtained in a little quiet corner of their own south of Yambulla.

'Pambula Voice' July 10, 1914
TOWAMBA
Mr. John Hartneady has decided to close his store at Yambulla, and is having it pulled down and going to rebuild the store and billiard room in Towamba.

Hartneady's old store and billiard room, moved from
Yambulla to Towamba. This was still operating as a
General Store in Towamba until the 1940's.
Photo K. Clery

'Pambula Voice' September 18, 1914
We are a very small community now there is no store. Mr. Hartneady is pulling down the premises which were some years ago erected by the late Mr. Miradian.

'Magnet' March 14, 1931
An application has been lodged with the Warden's Clerk at Eden, by John Zimmeer or Zimmerer, of Ascot Road, Bowral, for gold mining lease of 8 acres, being original G. L. 44, Parish of Yambulla. Representing a German mining Co.
Ditto application from Robert Henry MacKenzie also of Bowral.
According to records in Eden office, application No. 1900/1 was lodged in 1900, 2 June, by Patrick McCloy as agent for John Chas. Roberts, John Henry Roberts, Herman Bollman, Thomas Prendergast, John Karvelin, Hugh Carragher, Arthur Jarvis, James Fredrick Roberts, and William Donaldson Robertson - effective on May 25, 1900.
Next application: No.1900/2 lodged for Thomas Schafer by his agent, George Arnold. 4 acres.
No. 1900/3 - 2 acres Robert H. McKenzie
* A map of the leases granted and surveyed gives names of some well known mines. Yambulla Mines: Spion Kop, Golden Rhine and Heathy Gap.

Federal Hotel, Yambulla
No Date

Magnet' March 14, 1931
* Yambulla became a deserted village and although its hotel survived for some years as a guest house for occasional travellers on the through road to Wangrabelle, it too became unprofitable and was sold and removed from the locality. The country is fairly well watered and is otherwise well suited for prospecting. A road connecting Yambulla with the western road via Pericoe has fallen into disrepair.

'Magnet' April 18, 1931
* Nine miners out at Yambulla.

'Magnet' April 25, 1931
* Government Notice: application by T. G. Napier, J. T. Dunbar, D. J. Walker surrender part of freehold portion 83 - about 273 acres in exchange for about 273 acres of Crown land in four parts, Parish of Nungatta, County of Auckland.
* A map of the leases granted and surveyed gives names of some well known mines. Yambulla Mines: Spion Kop, Golden Rhine and Heathy Gap.

'Magnet' June 20, 1931
* Stone taken from Yambulla mine yielded poorly so mine once again closed down.

'Magnet' July 11, 1931
* Mr. George Brown commenced work on the old Yambulla field and expects a successful digging.

'Magnet' November 21, 1931
* Brown Bros. struck promising stone at Yambulla, original finders of payable gold at Yambulla.

'Magnet' August 12, 1933.
PERICOE
Yambulla, about fourteen miles distant from Pericoe was an extremely busy settlement in the gold mining days. It could boast of a splendid hotel and a public school and a spacious dance hall. It possessed facilities for sport and happy prospectors after a week's hard work would joyfully participate in athletics, tennis, football, etc., Now everything is in ruins. Truly Yambulla is a deserted village. Messers R. Williams and B. Branch at present prospecting in the Yambulla district intend visiting Bowral for a brief sojourn. They, with the Quigg Bros comprise the whole the population of Yambulla.
* Messers R. Williams and D. Branch at present prospecting in Yambulla district.

'Magnet' March 24, 1934
* Those mining at Yambulla Goldfields: Mr. Pola, Mr. Joseph Miradian and Mr. Wall, a brother-in-law of Mr. Miradian.
* Yambulla Mines: Spion Kop and Solomon mines.

'Magnet' March 31, 1934
YAMBULLA MINES
The return of one of Yambulla's most successful miners Mr. M.J. Pola to the field after an absence of many years since of the disposal of his interests there marks what it is hoped will prove to be the beginning of a big revival of gold mining in a locality which although prosperous enough in its early days should under modern conditions of mining and ore treatment prove very much more prosperous for many years to come. The lease secured by Mr. Pola in conjunction with Mr. W.L. Wall consists of five acres of auriferous land comprising what was known as the prospectors claim at Spion Kop about one and a half miles on the Eden side of the old Solomon mine at what when the field was first opened up was the main Yambulla field.
On this lease Messers Pola and Wall had at the bottom of their shaft at a depth of 40 feet a quartz reef about six feet wide from which bulk assays at 1 oz. to 25 cwts have been obtained while at the end of a tunnel from 250 feet to 300 feet long put in at an estimated depth of 150 feet the reef is five feet wide giving good assays . Satisfactory tests have also been made along the chute showing on the surface for a length of 150 feet or so and to a depth of 12 or 15 feet so that the existence of a fairly big block of auriferous stone ready to be worked to economical advantage has thus been proven. Further prospecting is in progress and there seems every likelihood of the possessors of the mine being able by their efforts and example to attract to this field capital seeking investment in bonafide gold mining enterprise. Mr. R.H. McKenzie's gold mining lease of two and a half acres is also situated some distance away from the old Yambulla G.M. Co's line but in another direction and is believed by the lessee to have all the attributes of a good gold mining property.

'Magnet' September 29, 1934
* Hopes are entertained for the revival of the Yambulla goldfields where on account of excessively wet weather interfering with the opening up of the mine, developmental operations by Messers Pola and Wall were suspended a few months ago. Backed it is understood with a sufficiency of capital, these enterprising miners who had profitable experience of the fielding days when gold was half its present price, will shortly arrive to open up our auriferous reefs. Some of them in new country adjacent to the old field from which, in the earlier days, much wealth was won.

'Magnet' November 17, 1934
* Interest in Yambulla is by no means dead. Prospectors, geologists and others often inspect the deserted goldfields. Rain and age have rendered the neglected Pericoe-Yambulla Road almost impassable. A sedan car had to be moved from a bog only a few days ago.

'Magnet' March 9, 1935
YAMBULLA GOLD FIELD
Mining Revival
Messers M. Pola and W. Wall who some months ago took up an almost untouched mining area at Yambulla with which they were acquainted in the earlier days of the gold field, have, following the suspension which they were allowed on account of the flooding of the mine by inordinately heavy rainfall, taken a course that bids fair to result in a definite revival of payable industry on this once-famous field.
On terms that will ensure a thorough testing of the property, a four months option to purchase has been secured from Mr. S. W. Stewart of Sydney who is losing no time in getting out the water and sampling the mine.
Mr. Dockerell, a mining expert has been out to the mine for the purpose of making as comprehensive an inspection as possible and reporting to his principal.
The water in the main shaft has been baled out to a depth of 40 feet disclosing a reef from 5 feet to 7 feet wide. Samples taken across the reef gave values ranging from 3 oz. to 8 dwts. per ton representing an average from 1 oz. to 30 dwts. to the ton for the full width of the reef.
He's confidently expected that the further opening up of the reef will be attended with satisfactory results and lead to the introduction of modern machinery and large scale operations.
Our gold mine is at present quiescent, as timbering and general fitting up are going on. Certainly some splendid specimens have been taken out of the solid. I should say, from what I have seen, the reef is certainly worth trying. But development work is monstrously expensive.

'Magnet' August 17, 1935
YAMBULLA MINES
Prospects of Revival
The likelihood of a mining revival at Yambulla and the spending of 200 on the road to the mines were mentioned at the Imlay Shire Council's last meeting.
A largely-signed petition from residents of Yambulla, Pericoe and Towamba asking that the branch road to Yambulla from the Pericoe-Eden road be made trafficable at an early date, was before the meeting.
Mr. E.P.Rodd, clerk, reported that the holder of mining leases at Yambulla had called on him and had mentioned that he had spent over 200 in improving the road but that further attention was needed. A spot near the junction at Ryan's and another at White Gum Flat appeared to be the greatest cause of trouble, he (the clerk) gathered.
Councillor Wiles: 'If all those signatories will assist we can do something.' (laughter)
The president mentioned that between twenty and thirty sleeper cutters were operating in the locality and councillors considered that this probably had a bearing on the petition.
Councillor Mitchell said that the people of the locality seemed to think the mines were going ahead and in view of this he considered that the petition should be reported upon.
It was decided that this be done.


Remains of cooking pot. Remains of boiler.
Fireplace possibly hotel. Remains of a small rail.